Cover crop increases soybean yield cropped after degraded pasture in sandy soil/Plantas de cobertura aumentam a produtividade da soja cultivada apos pastagem degradada em solo arenoso.

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Publisher: ATECEL--Associacao Tecnico Cientifica Ernesto Luiz de Oliveira Junior
Document Type: Article
Length: 4,336 words

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HIGHLIGHTS: Black oats improve soil microbial activity, nodulation and soybean yield. Shoot dry weight, shootnitrogen, root nodules number and dry weight of root nodules, have a positive correlation with soybean yield. Nitrogen fertilization is not recommended where cover crops are used. Soybean cropping has been growing in recent years in environments with sandy soils and with climatic risk, but yield is low, especially in the early years. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cover crops and nitrogen management in a sandy soil previously under degraded pastures on soybean yield. The study was conducted in Western Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with four replicates, and the treatments were: black oats; black oats + 50 kg [ha.sup.-1] of N in black oats; black oats + 50 kg [ha.sup.-1] of N in soybean; black oats + lupine; black oats + lupine + 50 kg [ha.sup.-1] of N in soybean; lupine; fallow; fallow + 50 kg [ha.sup.-1] of N in soybean. Nitrogen concentration of the microbial biomass was higher with oats + N in soybean applied at the beginning of flowering (Rl). The number of nodules in soybean roots increased by 2.3 times with oats and oats + N in soybean as compared to fallow. Soybean yield was higher in treatments with oats + N in oats (2,130 kg [ha.sup.-1]), oats (2,038 kg [ha.sup.-1]) and oats + N in soybean (1,872 kg [ha.sup.-1]). In the absence of cover crops, N fertilization in soybean increased yield by 19% (262 kg [ha.sup.-1]) compared to fallow. Black oats are the best option to increase soybean yield. However, in the absence of cover crops, nitrogen fertilization in soybean is necessary. Key words: Glycine max, climatic risk environment, nodulation, microbial biomass O cultivo de soja vem crescendo nos ultimos anos em ambientes de solos arenosos e com risco climatico, mas a produtividade e baixa, principalmente nos primeiros anos. Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar o efeito do manejo de culturas de cobertura e nitrogenio em solo arenoso previamente ocupado por pastagem degradada na produtividade da soja. O estudo foi conduzido no Oeste de Sao Paulo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repeticoes e os tratamentos foram: aveia preta; aveia preta + 50 kg [ha.sup.-1] de N na aveia preta; aveia preta + 50 kg [ha.sup.-1] de N na soja; aveia preta + tremoco; aveia preta + tremoco + 50 kg [ha.sup.-1] de N na soja; tremoco; pousio; pousio + 50 kg [ha.sup.-1] de N na soja. O teor de nitrogenio da biomassa microbiana foi maior com aveia preta + N na soja aplicado no inicio do fiorescimento (Rl). O numero de nodulos nas raizes da soja aumentou 2,3 vezes com aveia e aveia + N na soja em relacao ao pousio. A produtividade da soja foi maior nos tratamentos com aveia + N na aveia (2.130 kg [ha.sup.-1]), aveia (2.038 kg [ha.sup.-1]) e aveia + N na soja (1.872 kg [ha.sup.-1]). Na ausencia de culturas de cobertura, a adubacao nitrogenada na soja aumentou a produtividade em 19% (262 kg [ha.sup.-1]) comparado ao pousio. A aveia preta e a melhor opcao para aumentar a produtividade da soja. Porem na ausencia de planta de cobertura e necessaria a adubacao nitrogenada na soja. Palavras-chave: Glycine max, ambiente de risco climatico, nodulacao, biomassa microbiana

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A662090025