Prevalence of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection and factors associated with treatment outcome among the tuberculosis patients in HIV treatment facility in a teaching hospital in Jos, North Central Nigeria.

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From: Port Harcourt Medical Journal(Vol. 14, Issue 3)
Publisher: Medknow Publications and Media Pvt. Ltd.
Document Type: Article
Length: 3,436 words
Lexile Measure: 1580L

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Byline: Sunday. Asuke, John. Bimba, Swem. Ngutor, Eunice. Ejiga, Shanabo. Miracle, Dorcas. Anamayi

Background: Globally, tuberculosis (TB) remains a disease of grave public health concern. It ranks above HIV/AIDS as the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, and as one of the 10 most common causes of mortality. This study assessed the prevalence of TB-HIV co-infection and factors associated with treatment outcome among the TB patients in an HIV treatment facility in a Teaching hospital in Jos, North central Nigeria. Methods: A 10-year retrospective, descriptive cross-sectional review was conducted and data was extracted through the review of TB registers. Data were analysed using SPSS version 20 and bivariate analyses was conducted at P < 0.05. Results: The prevalence of TB-HIV co-infection was 9.25%, with the mean age of the study participants being 41.8 [+ or -] 11.6 years. Of all the participants, 87.5% had successful treatment outcome, while 12.5% had unsuccessful treatment outcome. In the bivariate analysis, place of residence was the only socio-demographic factor significantly associated with treatment outcome (<0.001). Conclusion: The TB-HIV co-infection prevalence rate was about 10% of the total HIV population with a high TB treatment success rate. With the exception of place of residence, no other factor had statistically significant relationship with the treatment outcome.

Introduction

Globally, tuberculosis (TB) ranks above HIV/AIDS as the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, and as one of the 10 most common causes of mortality. Annually, millions of people are infected with the dreaded TB and HIV disease. HIV infection and other factors such as malnutrition, smoking, diabetes and alcohol consumption have been associated with the development of new TB disease. Total mortality for TB in 2017 was estimated at 1.6 million, and about a fifth of these deaths was due to TB/HIV co infection. Also, of the 10 million people newly infected with TB in 2017, 9-10th were adults, out of which about a tenth were HIV positive. About two-third of those that were HIV positive were located in Africa and eight countries including Nigeria contributed to two-third of this 10 million new infections. TB-HIV co-infection has accounted for the gap in the management and control of TB in the World Health Organization (WHO) African region due to the high prevalence of this co-infection.[1]

The TB and HIV duo are of grave public health concern, and if urgent control strategies are not put in place, this may hinder the attainment of SDGs in developing countries. About a quarter of the world's population are estimated to have a latent TB infection. HIV infection weakens the human defence mechanism and is one of the individual most important risk factor capable of reactivating latent TB disease to active disease.[2] Furthermore, HIV positive individuals who get exposed to TB bacilli are reported to be 37 times more at risk of developing active TB disease than HIV-negative individuals.[3]

According to 2018 global TB report, Nigeria is one of the 30 Tb high burden countries contributing to about...

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A656645787