Mass mortality of pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata (Gould)) in Japan in 2019 and 2020 is caused by an unidentified infectious agent.

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From: PeerJ(Vol. 9)
Publisher: PeerJ. Ltd.
Document Type: Article
Length: 7,181 words
Lexile Measure: 1400L

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Abstract :

Mass mortality of 0-year-old pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata (Gould), and anomalies in adults were observed in Japan's major pearl farming areas in the summer of 2019 and 2020. Although adult oyster mortality was low, both adult and juvenile oysters underwent atrophy of the soft body, detachment of the mantle from nacre (the shiny inner surface of the valves), deposition of brownish material on the nacre, and loss of nacre luster. Infection trials were conducted to verify the involvement of pathogens in this phenomenon. Healthy adult pearl oysters were obtained from areas where this disease had not occurred to use as the recipients. The sources of infection were either affected adult oysters with atrophied soft bodies or batches of juveniles in which mortality had reached conspicuous levels. Transmission of the disease to the healthy oysters were tested either by cohabitation with affected oysters or by injections of the hemolymph of affected animals. The injection infection test examined the effects of filtration and chloroform exposure on the pathogen. Occurrence of the disease was confirmed by the appearance of brown deposits on the nacre and loss of nacre luster. The abnormalities of nacre were clearly reproduced in recipient shells in three out of four cohabitation trials with affected oysters. The disease was also reproduced in six out of six injection trails either with hemolymph filtered through 100 nm filter or with hemolymph treated with chloroform. In a serial passage with hemolymph injections, the disease was successfully transmitted through eight passages. These results suggest that the etiology of the disease is a non-enveloped virus with a diameter [less than or equal to]100 nm.

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A676270145