Background and Aim: The oviduct environment is of particular importance because it is the site of fertilization and early embryo development. The oviduct, as a component of the reproductive system, responds to ovarian hormone (estradiol [E2] and progesterone [P4]) stimuli depending on the estrous cycle phase. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of estrous cycle phases (follicular and early and late luteal phases) on gene expression patterns in bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOeCs). Materials and Methods: Oviducts were obtained from healthy slaughterhouse animals, corresponding to ipsilateral ovaries with dominant follicles or corpus luteum during early and late luteal phases. BOECs were recovered from the isthmus (IST) and ampulla (AMP), and the expression patterns of genes related to cytokinesis and mitosis mechanisms (rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase and cellular communication network factor 2 [CCN2]), growth factors (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3, epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], vascular endothelial growth factor A, and EGFR), antioxidant mechanisms (glutathione peroxidase 4 [GPX4]), apoptosis (B-cell lymphoma 2), complement component (C3), energy metabolism (aldose reductase gene family 1-member b1 [AKRIB1] and solute carrier family 2), hormone receptors (estrogen receptor 1 and luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor), and specific glycoproteins (oviductal glycoprotein 1) were analyzed. Results: High P4 levels (late luteal phase) affected the expression of important genes related to antioxidant mechanisms (GPX4), energy metabolism (AKRIB1), growth factors (IgBp3 and EGFR), and cell growth regulation (CCN2) in the AMP. Low P4 levels (early luteal phase) affected the expression of AKR1B1, IGBP3, and CCN2. In addition, estrogen likely had an effect on OVPGP expression in the cattle oviduct. Conclusion: Differential gene expression patterns of BOECs in the AMP during the luteal phase (antioxidant mechanisms, energy metabolism, growth factors, and immunological regulators) and in the IST during the follicular phase (glycoproteins) may influence their renewal and population proportions, modulating the oviduct environment as well as gamete and embryo physiology. Keywords: bovine oviduct epithelial cells, estrus phase, follicular, gene expression, luteal, oviduct.