Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

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Author: Firdous Ansari
Date: Sept-Dec 2020
From: Port Harcourt Medical Journal(Vol. 14, Issue 3)
Publisher: Medknow Publications and Media Pvt. Ltd.
Document Type: Article
Length: 4,019 words
Lexile Measure: 2060L

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Byline: Firdous. Ansari

Background: According to the World Health Organization, human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical cancer, which is the fourth most common cancer in women, with an estimated 266,000 deaths and 528,000 new cases in 2012. Usually, HPV infections cause no symptoms but it is also reported that 99% cervical cancer cases are linked to genital infection with HPV and it is the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract. Aim: The aim of the study is to review the literature to describe what research has been done and what can be the future prospect. Methods: To search for the literature search engine, PubMed and Google were searched by inputting different key words, for example, HPV and cervical cancer. Studies considered were broadly associated with either HPV and cervical cancer or its worldwide scenario and socio-economic status. Results: Considered studies showed that Genital HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States, whereas a considerable number i.e., 90% cases of cervical cancer, HPV was detected. The largest proportion attributable to HPV reported were about 75%, 70%, 70% and 60% of vaginal cancers, oropharyngeal cancers, vulvar cancers and penile cancers, respectively. Various identified risk factors as well as different suggested methods are also described to protect against HPV. Conclusion: We may conclude that as it is sexually transmitted infection and causes no symptoms, so proper care should be taken in intimate hygiene management.

Introduction

Human papilloma viruses (HPVs) are a small group of nonenveloped viruses belonging to the Papillomaviridae family with strong similarities to polyoma viruses.[1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6] The Center for Disease Control and Prevention highlights the fact that the majority of sexually active individuals become infected with HPV at least once in their lifetime.[7],[8],[9],[10] HPV is the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection worldwide,[11],[12],[13],[14],[15] associated with approximately 5.2% of human cancer burden worldwide.[16],[17],[18] Types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are phylogenetically classified into alpha (a), beta (ß) or gamma (a) genera, with a HPVs displaying tropism for mucosal epithelium and ß-and a-HPVs displaying tropism for cutaneous epithelium.[19],[20] Cutaneous HPVs have also been detected in the anal canal, genital, cervical epithelia and in oral and nasal mucosa.[21],[22],[23],[24],[25],[26],[27],[28],[29],[30] HPV types 16 and 18 are the most common high-risk types and are considered to be responsible for >70% of all cervical cancer cases.[5]

Methods of Review

For the development purpose of this article different key words in different search engines such as PubMed and Google were searched. Key words used were HPV, cervical cancer, risk factors of cervical cancer, low socio-economic status, etc. Studies included in this review article were broadly associated either with HPV and cervical cancer or with its worldwide scenario and socio-economic status.

Results

Considered studies showed that genital HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States, whereas a considerable number i.e., 90% cases of cervical cancer, HPV was detected. The largest proportion attributable to HPV reported were about 75%, 70%, 70% and 60% of vaginal cancers, oropharyngeal cancers, vulvar cancers and penile cancers, respectively. Rates...

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A656645795