Sodium and Potassium Intake, the Sodium to Potassium Ratio, and Associated Characteristics in Older Adults, NHANES 2011-2016.

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Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishers
Document Type: Report
Length: 496 words

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Keywords Sodium; Potassium; Sodium to potassium ratio; Older adults; NHANES Abstract Background Sodium, potassium, and the balance between these 2 nutrients are associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and prevalence of these conditions increases with age. However, limited information is available on these intakes among older adults. Objective Our aim was to explore the socioeconomic and health factors associated with usual sodium and potassium intakes and the sodium to potassium (Na:K) ratio of older adults. Design This was a cross-sectional, secondary analysis of the 2011-2012, 2013-2014, and 2015-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants/setting This study included the data of 5,104 adults 50 years and older, with at least one reliable 24-hour dietary recall and an estimated glomerular filtration rate [greater than or equal to]60 mL/min/1.73 m.sup.2. Main outcome measures Sodium and potassium intake, as absolute intake, density (per 1,000 kcal) and ratio of Na:K intake. Statistical analyses We used t tests and [chi].sup.2 tests to examine significant differences in intakes on a given day by characteristics. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess associations of socioeconomic and health characteristics with usual sodium and potassium intakes, determined using the National Cancer Institute method. Results Only 26.2% of participants consumed Conclusions Participants consumed too much sodium and not enough potassium, based on current recommendations. A higher Na:K ratio was significantly associated with established risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The study findings suggest that more research on cardiovascular health should include both sodium and potassium, as well as balance between these nutrients. Author Affiliation: (1) Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland, College Park (2) Food Surveys Research Group, US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC (3) Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland, College Park * Address correspondence to: Nadine R. Sahyoun, PhD, RD, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, 0112 Skinner Building, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. Article History: Received 22 September 2020; Accepted 10 June 2021 (footnote) STATEMENT OF POTENTIAL CONFLICT OF INTEREST No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. (footnote) FUNDING/SUPPORT This work was supported by the US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service Cooperative Agreement (grant USDA-58-1235-3-122). (footnote) AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS N. R. Sahyoun, A. Vaudin, E. Wambogo, and A. J. Moshfegh developed the concept and design of the study. E. Wambogo analyzed the data. E. Wambogo, A. Vaudin, N. R. Sahyoun wrote the first draft. All authors reviewed and commented on subsequent drafts of the manuscript. Byline: Anna Vaudin, PhD (1), Edwina Wambogo, PhD, MPH, RD (1), Alanna J. Moshfegh, MS, RD (2), Nadine R. Sahyoun, PhD, RD [] (3,*)

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A686979910