Background Parental cancer has a significant impact on minor children and families. Psychosocial interventions for affected families can provide support where necessary. This systematic review aims at providing an overview of existing interventions and support programs and focuses on the systematic investigation of barriers and facilitators for using psychosocial interventions for families affected by parental cancer (PROSPERO; registration number CRD42014013020). Methods A search of five electronic databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, Psyndex, CINAHL) was conducted in June 2014, and updated in September 2015. We included any kind of studies reporting psychosocial support services or interventions for families affected by parental cancer. Study quality was assessed using the Mixed Method Assessment Tool. Narrative synthesis and thematic analyses were undertaken to examine the included interventions and to identify barriers and facilitators for use and implementation. Results A total of 36 studies covering 19 interventions and support services were included in the systematic review. Interventions focused on children, parents or several family members and analyses revealed a broad picture of theoretical background and primary aims. Several studies focused on developmental or implementation phases or descriptions of interventions. Other included studies reported results of evaluations using qualitative and quantitative methods. Results suggest that interventions are helpful and that participants improved in various outcomes. The thematic analyses indicate that barriers for use of support services refer to aspects concerning the patients and families, such as practical difficulties, perceived need for support or fear of stigma. Cancer patients who understood the need and benefit of support services may have used them more often. Additionally, intervention characteristics such as a flexible structure and accessibility were important to reach families affected by parental cancer. Disease characteristics and complications in collaborations were identified as potential barriers. The provision of information about interventions by clinicians and understanding the support as part of routine care seem to be key issues for implementation and use of psychosocial support. Conclusion This review identified a broad number of intervention concepts for families with minor children affected by parental cancer. Findings provide a basis for existing or future psychosocial interventions to anticipate potential barriers and facilitators to implementation and use and can help to reach a wider range of families in need for support.