This article reviews literature and summarizes experiments to investigate the extent to which productivity of tropical montane rain forests is constrained by low nutrient supply. On any one mountain, with increase in altitude foliar N decreases, and P and K usually decrease, but Ca and Mg show no consistent trend. However for a wide range of sites N, P, K, Mg, and Ca show no trends. Litterfall contents of N and P and often K, Ca, and Mg are lower in montane forests than in lowland forests, mainly because of reduced litterfall mass, but N and P concentrations are also lower in forests above 1500 m. Tropical montane soils usually have more soil organic matter per unit ground area; N mineralization levels are lower at higher altitudes in Costa Rica, and extractable and total soil P are lower in sites with lower litterfall P concentrations. We speculate that many lowland forests are limited by P and many montane forests by N. Fertilization studies on ash-derived montane soils in Hawai'i showed a trend for a switch from N limitation on young soils to P, or N and P, limitation on soils over older substrates. Jamaican montane trees were limited by N and by P separately. Venezuelan montane trees were limited by N. The sites in Jamaica and Venezuela have soils of indeterminate age. Taken together these results show that nutrient limitation is widespread in montane soils (all sites have responded to at least one nutrient) and that the particular nutrient(s) that limit(s) production may differ for explicable reasons. First results from lowland forests on sandy soils in Kalimantan show N or simultaneous N and P limitation. Many more experiments, especially in lowland forests, are needed to test our speculation that P usually limits productivity in tropical lowland rain forests and that N limits productivity in tropical montane rain forests. Key words: fertilization experiments; forests in Hawai'i, Jamaica, and Venezuela; growth limitation; montane cf. lowland forests; nitrogen; nutrient limitation of forest growth; nutrients; phosphorus; soil age and nutrient limitation; tropical montane rain forest productivity.