Differential attraction of drosophilids to banana baits inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora uvarum within a Neotropical forest remnant

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From: PeerJ(Vol. 5)
Publisher: PeerJ. Ltd.
Document Type: Report
Length: 5,992 words
Lexile Measure: 1390L

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Abstract :

Background Yeasts are a necessary requisite in the diet of most Drosophila species that, in turn, may vector their dispersal in natural environments. Differential attractiveness experiments and the isolation of yeasts consumed by Drosophila may be informative for characterizing this association. Hanseniaspora uvarum is among the most common yeast species isolated from Drosophila crops, with high attractiveness to drosophilids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely used to collect flies, and it allows broad sampling of almost all local Drosophila species. Pronounced differences in the field concerning Drosophila attractivity to baits seeded with these yeast species have been previously reported. However, few explicit generalizations have been set. Since late fifties, no field experiments of Drosophila attractivity were carried out in the Neotropical region, which is facing shifts in abiotic and biotic factors. Our objective is to characterize preference behavior that mediates the interaction in the wild among Neotropical Drosophila species and yeasts associated with them. We want to set a broad generalization about drosophilids attracted to these yeasts. Here we present the results of a differential attractiveness experiment we carried out in a natural Atlantic Rainforest fragment to assess the preferences of Drosophila species groups to baits inoculated with H. uvarum and S. cerevisiae. Methods Both yeast species were cultured in GYMP broth and separately poured in autoclaved mashed banana that was left fermenting. In the field, we collected drosophilids over five arrays of three different baits: non-inoculated autoclaved banana and banana inoculated with each yeast. In the laboratory the drosophilids were sorted to five sets according to their external morphology and/or genitalia: tripunctata; guarani; willistoni; exotic; and the remaining flies pooled in others. Results and Conclusions Uninoculated banana baits attracted virtually no flies. We found significant departures from random distribution over the other two baits (1:1 proportion) for all sets, except the pooled others. Flies of the sets willistoni and exotic preferred H. uvarum over S. cerevisiae, while the remaining sets were more attracted to S. cerevisiae. Previously, various authors reported similar patterns in attraction experiments with S. cerevisiae and H. uvarum. It is also noteworthy that both yeast species have been isolated from natural substrates and crops of Drosophila species. Taken together, these results suggest that the preferences among Drosophila species groups may be reflecting deep and stable relations with yeast species in natural environments. They can be summarized as: forest dwelling species from subgenus Drosophila (such as tripunctata and guarani groups) are attracted to banana baits seeded with S. cerevisiae; while exotic (as D. melanogaster) and subgenus Sophophora species are preferentially attracted to baits seeded with H. uvarum.

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A543307121