This study aims to document the dual mode of pharmacological action of moringa isothiocyanate-1 (MIC-1) derived from seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. Oral administration of chemically stable MIC-1 (80 mg/kg) significantly reduced the expression of inflammatory markers (Tnf-[alpha], Ifn-[alpha], IL-1[beta], IL-6) in the liver, kidney, spleen, and colon and decreased spleen weight in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis / acute inflammation model in mice. Transcriptomic analysis of the effect of MIC-1 on the liver and in the LPS-induced RAW264.7 murine macrophage showed that MIC-1 decreases inflammation via inflammation, immunity, and oxidative stress pathways. These results are supported by the immunocytochemical observations that MIC-1 increased the nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) transcription factor and decreased the nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-[kappa]B) in the LPS-induced macrophages. Transcriptional activation of antioxidant genes by MIC-1 translated into a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cytoplasm, decrease of mitochondrial superoxide content, and restoration of the mitochondrial membrane potential in the LPS-induced macrophages. Our data indicate that MIC-1 affects inflammation and oxidative stress, two key processes involved in the etiology of many chronic diseases. These effects involve upstream regulation of two key transcriptional factors regulating responses to these processes at a gene expression level.