Author(s): Kelly C Lee [*] aff1 , Karen Suchanek Hudmon aff2 , Joseph D Ma aff1 , Grace M Kuo aff1
pharmacogenomics; pharmacy; shared curriculum; student
Although professional organizations representing schools of medicine and pharmacy have established curricular guidelines for pharmacogenomics [ 1,2 ], the overall lack of pharmacogenomics education among health professionals remains a barrier to integrating pharmacogenomics into clinical practice [ 3-5 ]. Core competencies have been defined by the National Coalition for Health Professional Education in Genetics [6 ], and the Association of American Medical Colleges Contemporary Issues in Medicine: Genetics Education Report have highlighted integration of genetics into three domains: prevention, diagnosis and treatment [1 ]. The American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Academic Affairs Committee has described pharmacist-specific competencies with examples including a pharmacist being able to identify patients for whom pharmacogenomic testing is indicated, identifying an appropriate pharmacogenomic test for a patient and being able to provide recommendations based on pharmacogenomic testing results [2 ].
Didactic lectures are the primary pedagogical method for providing pharmacogenomic instruction in schools of medicine and pharmacy. In a survey of medical schools (n = 90), 66% reported that pharmacogenomics didactic instruction existed as part of a required pharmacology course [7 ]. In a survey of pharmacy schools (n = 75), the number of pharmacogenomics didactic hours ranged from 11 to 30 [8 ]. Other nondidactic methods of pharmacogenomics instruction (e.g., genotyping and/or a laboratory component) have been reported elsewhere [ 9,10 ]. In 2009, the University of California, San Diego, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences initiated the development of evidence-based educational materials through the Pharmacogenomics Education Program (PharmGenEd): bridging the gap between science and practice, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [11 ]. One program component is a shared curriculum, which was made available for faculty at schools of medicine and pharmacy for adoption into their existing or new didactic courses.
For shared curricula in other areas of medicine and/or pharmacy, measurements evaluating student outcome include knowledge, attitudes, confidence and behaviors [12-15 ]. Sparse data exist to characterize the impact of pharmacogenomics instruction on student training outcomes [9 ]. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to evaluate pharmacy students' self-reported overall ability, self-efficacy and attitudes toward applying pharmacogenomics, and perceptions of the pharmacogenomics curriculum. Data were derived from PharmGenEd curricular implementations during the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 academic years among participating pharmacy schools. Course content was taught by faculty who had previously participated in a series of web-based train-the-trainer programs, hosted by the PharmGenEd program [16 ].
Patients & methods
Participants & curriculum content
Study participants were Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students attending schools of pharmacy in the US and Canada who received pharmacogenomics training, via the PharmGenEd curriculum, as part of their required or elective pharmacy coursework. The PharmGenEd curriculum is described in detail elsewhere [16 ] and is available at [17 ]. The curriculum is a series of independent but complementary modules to equip students with the knowledge and skills to educate patients about pharmacogenomics and interpret...