The causes and consequences of shame in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

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Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishers
Document Type: Report; Brief article
Length: 303 words

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Abstract :

Keywords Obsessive-compulsive disorder; Shame; Anxiety; Cognitive behavioural therapy Highlights * Imaginal inductions were used to examine shame in obsessive-compulsive disorder. * Harm and sexual obsession inductions elicited greater shame and anxiety. * Shame responses independently predicted compulsion and avoidance behaviour. * Models and treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder should address shame. Abstract Research into the aetiology, maintenance, and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has largely been informed by models of anxiety. However, non-experimental research suggests that some individuals may engage in compulsions to neutralise shame, with repugnant obsessions associated with more shame than other obsessions. Violent and sexual obsessions and shame have been linked with poorer treatment outcomes, and thus, treatment modifications are needed. This experimental study aimed to examine if and how shame fits into a cognitive behavioural model of OCD. Fifty-five individuals experiencing subclinical (n = 9) to clinical (n = 46) OCD symptoms were randomly administered four different obsession induction paradigms focused on harm, sexual, contamination, and symmetry obsessions. After each induction, participants reported on their emotional states, gave appraisal ratings regarding their urges to engage in compulsions and avoidant behaviour, and completed manipulation checks. Harm and sexual inductions elicited greater shame and anxiety and were considered more immoral than contamination and symmetry inductions. Shame responses were also independently associated with compulsion and avoidance behaviours in repugnant obsessions, controlling for anxiety. Theoretical models and treatment for OCD should be adapted to address shame. Author Affiliation: Centre for Emotional Health, Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, 2109, NSW, Australia * Corresponding author. Centre for Emotional Health, Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Building 4 First Walk, Room 714, Sydney, 2109, NSW, Australia. Article History: Received 11 January 2021; Revised 1 February 2022; Accepted 11 February 2022 Byline: Shanara Visvalingam, Cassandra Crone, Simon Street, Ella L. Oar, Philippe Gilchrist, Melissa M. Norberg [melissa.norberg@mq.edu.au] (*)

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A696275044