PDIA3P1 promotes Temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma by inhibiting C/EBP[beta] degradation to facilitate proneural-to-mesenchymal transition.

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Date: July 15, 2022
Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.
Document Type: Article
Length: 10,258 words
Lexile Measure: 1410L

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Abstract :

Background Resistance to temozolomide (TMZ) is a major obstacle to preventing glioblastoma (GBM) recurrence after surgery. Although long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a variety of roles in GBM, the lncRNAs that regulate TMZ resistance have not yet been clearly elucidated. This study aims to identify lncRNAs that may affect TMZ treatment sensitivity and to explore novel therapeutic strategies to overcome TMZ resistance in GBM. Methods LncRNAs associated with TMZ resistance were identified using the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) and Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (GDSC) datasets. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to determine the expression of PDIA3P1 in TMZ-resistant and TMZ-sensitive GBM cell lines. Both gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies were used to assess the effects of PDIA3P1 on TMZ resistance using in vitro and in vivo assays. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) were used to determine the effect of PDIA3P1 on the GBM subtype. The hypothesis that PDIA3P1 promotes proneural-to-mesenchymal transition (PMT) was established using bioinformatics analysis and functional experiments. RNA pull-down and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays were performed to examine the interaction between PDIA3P1 and C/EBP[beta]. The posttranslational modification mechanism of C/EBP[beta] was verified using ubiquitination and coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) experiments. CompuSyn was leveraged to calculate the combination index (CI), and the antitumor effect of TMZ combined with nefllamapimod (NEF) was validated both in vitro and in vivo. Results We identified a lncRNA, PDIA3P1, which was upregulated in TMZ-resistant GBM cell lines. Overexpression of PDIA3P1 promoted the acquisition of TMZ resistance, whereas knockdown of PDIA3P1 restored TMZ sensitivity. PDIA3P1 was upregulated in MES-GBM, promoted PMT progression in GSCs, and caused GBMs to be more resistant to TMZ treatment. Mechanistically, PDIA3P1 disrupted the C/EBP[beta]-MDM2 complex and stabilized the C/EBP[beta] protein by preventing MDM2-mediated ubiquitination. Expression of PDIA3P1 was upregulated in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in response to TMZ treatment, and TMZ-induced upregulation of PDIA3P1 was mediated by the p38[alpha]-MAPK signaling pathway. NEF is a small molecule drug that specifically targets p38[alpha] with excellent blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. NEF blocked TMZ-responsive PDIA3P1 upregulation and produced synergistic effects when combined with TMZ at specific concentrations. The combination of TMZ and NEF exhibited excellent synergistic antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion PDIA3P1 promotes PMT by stabilizing C/EBP[beta], reducing the sensitivity of GBM cells to TMZ treatment. NEF inhibits TMZ-responsive PDIA3P1 upregulation, and NEF combined with TMZ provides better antitumor effects. Keywords: PDIA3P1, Temozolomide, Proneural-to-mesenchymal transition, Glioma stem cells, C/EBP[beta], MDM2, Neflamapimod

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A710623419