Much more research is needed to determine exactly which analgesic drugs, or pain-killers, are linked to kidney disease. Most analgesics cause a reversible form of kidney disease when used for short periods of time. The effect of long-term use for years is not known. Phenacetin was considered the primary culprit, but when it was banned in the US and some European countries, analgesic-induced kidney disease continued to occur. Other drugs such as aspirin, acetaminophen and codeine are known to affect the kidney. Acetaminophen alone should be the drug of choice for short periods of time.