Pharmacogenomic assessment of Mexican and Peruvian populations

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From: Pharmacogenomics(Vol. 16, Issue 5)
Publisher: Future Medicine Ltd.
Document Type: Report
Length: 5,561 words
Lexile Measure: 1830L

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Author(s): Sharon Marsh [*] aff1 aff2 , Cristi R King aff3 , Derek J Van Booven aff2 aff4 , Jane Y Revollo aff5 , Robert H Gilman aff6 , Howard L McLeod aff2 aff7

Keywords:

genotype; Hispanic; Mexico; Peru; pharmacogenomics; polymorphism; population

Clinically relevant DNA polymorphisms have significantly variable allele frequencies among different world populations [1-7 ]. However, many areas of the world are under-represented in current pharmacogenomics research [8,9 ]. Organizations such as the Pharmacogenetics for Every Nation Initiative are attempting to redress this balance by collecting country and region-specific data on pharmacogenomically relevant polymorphisms to ensure rational medication selection not based on Western European data [2,8-13 ].

Hispanic populations represent an important challenge for pharmacogenomics. Mexico is the 11th most populous nation in the world, and Mexican-Americans comprised 10.9% of the US population as of 2010 [14 ]. With over 30 million people of Mexican descent living in North America, this population is too large to be ignored by researchers. Approximately 60% of Mexicans classify themselves as Mestizo, with an ancestry that includes both Amerindians and Europeans. Another 30% are of Amerindian descent and 9% self-classify as white [15 ]. A study of Texas Hispanics (90% Mexican-Americans) calculated the degree of admixture to be approximately 36% Amerindian and 64% European [ 16 ]. Such a significant non-European genetic contribution to the Mexican population makes inferences based on European-American pharmacogenomic data problematic [17 ].

Peru has a population of approximately 30.15 million people. The major ethnic groups are 45% Amerindian, 37% Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) and 15% white, with the remaining 3% made up from Japanese, Chinese and African ethnicities [18 ]. A study of 25 regions of Peru found different levels of European ancestry depending on location [19 ]. As with the Mexican population this admixture provides a distinct population [20-22 ] that does not allow for assumptions from existing data for any one ethnic group.

Even generalizations across Hispanic groups are not viable. Both admixture levels and disease prevalence vary across Central and South America. For example, in New Jersey, where the majority of the Hispanic population is of Puerto Rican descent, the relative genetic contributions of Europeans, Amerindians and Africans are approximately 85%, 9% and 6%, respectively [ 16 ]. This variation in admixture correlates with real clinical problems. Puerto Ricans have the highest asthma rates in the US while Mexican-Americans have the lowest, and a meta-analysis has shown that Hispanics with African ancestry are at risk for more severe asthma in both Mexican-American and Puerto Rican American populations [23 ].

There is a paucity of pharmacogenomics data for Hispanic populations. Indeed, the majority of Central and South America are largely uncharacterized in the pharmacogenomics literature [24 ]. Previous studies have shown that Mexican-Americans have lower frequencies of the CYP2D6*4 alleles than European populations, but similar CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 enzyme activity [24-26 ]. Significant differences between Mexican-American and Spanish populations have also been observed for the CYP2C9*2 polymorphism, with the Spanish population carrying at least double the amount of CYP2C9*2 alleles (16% vs...

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A411315289