Proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells in a novel porous hydroxyapatite scaffold

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From: Regenerative Medicine(Vol. 10, Issue 5)
Publisher: Future Medicine Ltd.
Document Type: Report
Length: 7,134 words
Lexile Measure: 1520L

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Author(s): Genasan Krishnamurithy aff1 aff2 , Malliga Raman Murali aff1 , Mohd Hamdi aff3 , Azlina Amir Abbas aff1 , Hanumantharao Balaji Raghavendran aff1 , Tunku Kamarul [*] aff1

Keywords:

hydroxyapatite; mesenchymal stromal cell; osteogenic differentiation; tissue engineering

Bone possesses the inherent capacity for regeneration owing to its enhanced blood supply and responsiveness to injury. However such process is highly disturbed in critical-sized bone defects as a result of trauma or large surgical resections [1 ]. Although autograft is regarded as the gold standard for replacing bone loss, it possesses several disadvantages which include limited availability and donor site morbidity. Allograft has been deemed as a suitable alternative to autografts as they are more readily available in large quantity and can be made available as 'standby grafts' manufactured into various size and shapes. However, due to the host body immune rejection and potential disease transmission, the use of other alternatives became preferable [ 2,3 ].

Regenerative medicine is an emerging field of science that uses tissue-engineering approaches either to regenerate, repair or replace biological tissues and improve tissue functions [4 ]. These techniques mainly involve transplantation of cells (mature cells or stem cell or progenitor cells) in combination with supportive scaffolds and biomolecules [5 ]. Due to morphogenetic plasticity, lack of immunogenicity, excellent regenerative and osteogenic differentiation capacity, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells are generally believed to account for enhanced bone formation and use in bone tissue engineering applications [6 ]. The presence of a scaffolding technology provides an optimal environment for human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) attachment and proliferation in 3D orientation compared with 2D culture system [ 7 ]. Besides, to drive hMSCs into osteogenic lineage, growth factors such as, BMPs, TGF-[beta] and bFGF, which are widely used to induce bone formation in both ectopic and orthotopic sites in vivo , have been incorporated into scaffolds [8 ]. However, due to the short half-life of growth factors, strategies for controlled release by encapsulation in microspheres [8,9 ] or introducing DNA encoding specific osteogenic growth factors into the cell of interest using gene transfection technique have been recently employed [10,11 ]. Although polymer-based scaffolds are readily available and demand less technical challenges in fabrication, poor cell attachment property and biocompatibility issues limit their application in tissue engineering [ 12 ]. To overcome these issues, many natural-derived materials, which involve minimal processing techniques and excellent biocompatibility are highly recommended. On top of that, various factors such as porosity, pore sizes, micro and nanoarchitecture of the scaffolds are tailored to mimic the in vivo environment. Besides providing an optimal environment for cell attachment and proliferation, these factors are also crucial to build a neotissue via host cells infiltration into the scaffold when introduced into the body. Subsequently, the scaffold should have experienced a slow degradation over the time where the trace elements of the scaffold should have excreted via systemic circulation [9,13 ].

Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been widely used as a bone graft substitute to treat critical bone defects for many decades [14,15 ]. The reason is because HA...

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A424015183