Microbiological quality and genotoxicity of domestic water sources: A combined approach using Micro Biological Survey method and mutagenesis assay (micronucleus test) in root tips of Vicia faba in the West region of Cameroon

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From: PLoS ONE(Vol. 16, Issue 2)
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Document Type: Report
Length: 5,168 words
Lexile Measure: 1460L

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Abstract :

At least 2.1 billion people around the world use contaminated drinking water, causing 485,000 diarrheal deaths each year, mostly among children under 5 years old. A study conducted 10 years ago in Bafoussam (West Cameroon) recorded concentrations of bacteria among surface and groundwater. High levels of bicarbonates, phosphates, chlorides and suspended matters were also found. The aim of this study was to assess the microbiological and chemical qualities of domestic water sources in 5 localities of the West region of Cameroon. Water samples from 22 water sources (wells, springs, water drilling and river) were aseptically collected in plastic bottles and transferred in 50 ml sterile tubes. For chlorinated water sources, 1 ml of Thiosulfate was added to the water sample; immediately placed in an ice box and transported to the laboratory for analysis. Water temperature and pH were measured on site. The microbiological quality of water was determined by testing Total Coliforms (TC) using the Micro Biological Survey method. 1 ml of each water sample was inoculated in the MBS vial initially rehydrated with 10 ml of sterile distilled water. The initial color of the vials is red. Color changes were monitored at three different time intervals (12h, 19h and 24h), corresponding to three levels of contamination. The chemical quality of water was assessed using micronucleus (MN) test in selected Vicia faba seeds secondary root tips permanently mounted in Dibutylphthalate Polystyrene Xylene mountant for histology after 72 hours of direct exposition in water samples and in dark. The mitotic indices and MN frequencies were evaluated in 10 root tips per site analysing 5000 cells per tip. Statistical analyses were done using Stata IC/15.0 software. The Student t-test was used for mean comparison and the significance level was set at 1%. The majority of samples were collected from wells (63.6%). The mean water pH ranged from 5.5 to 8.3 and the temperature varied from 23 to 26°C. A very high concentration of TC [ 10.sup.3 CFU/ml] was found in 8 (36.4%) samples. 10 (45.5%) and 2 (9.1%) samples turned yellow at 19 and 24 hours respectively after incubation corresponding to TC concentration of [10

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A650730754