Author(s): Samy I McFarlane [[dagger]â ] 1 , Gul Bahtiyar 2
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become the modern-time epidemic that continues to increase rapidly, affecting millions of people around the globe [1-â7] . In the USA, the number of adults who reported having been diagnosed with DM was 9.9% in the year 2009, adding to this figure the substantial number of cases of undiagnosed diabetes, this number approaches 14% of the population and is projected to be 33% by the year 2050  . Worldwide, over 285 million people have diabetes, with projected increase to 366 million diabetics by the year 2030  . Diabetes not only represents a public health problem with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality, but also poses major economic challenges for healthcare systems around the globe. In the USA, for example, in 2007 diabetes-related costs amounted to US$253 billion, including direct medical cost and indirect costs such as absenteeism, loss of productivity and early mortality  .
Healthcare providers are faced with major challenges in diagnosis and management of diabetes and its complications, particularly early recognition of chronic kidney disease, the main cause of end-stage renal disease and renal replacement therapy, and a major contributor to early mortality from CVD in the diabetic population [9-â11] .
In this themed issue of Therapy , we discuss selected 'âhot topics'â, addressing therapeutic and diagnostic challenges as well as opportunities for CVD risk reduction. These articles are written by scholars with particular expertise and insights in the field. In this issue, the Heinz Drexel group discuss in a comprehensive review the current evidence for combination lipid therapy in people with diabetes  . While statins are a well-established, lipid-lowering therapy for people with diabetes that is associated with CVD risk reduction as well as pleotropic effects above and beyond lipid lowering  , residual CVD risk remains unacceptably high in the diabetic population despite statin therapy  . Therefore, combination lipid-lowering therapy addressed in this issue by Drexel et al. appears to be a logical option in this high CVD risk...