Accumulation and depuration of yessotoxin in two bivalves

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Date: Apr. 2011
From: Journal of Shellfish Research(Vol. 30, Issue 1)
Publisher: National Shellfisheries Association, Inc.
Document Type: Article
Length: 6,046 words
Lexile Measure: 1320L

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ABSTRACT Contamination of bivalves with yessotoxins (YTXs) has been reported since 1987 in several coastal environments. In our study we investigated the accumulation and the metabolism of YTXs in 2 bivalve species important to German fisheries and aquaculture. Mussels and oysters, Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas, were exposed to the YTX-producing dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum isolated from the North Sea. Toxin profiles from algae and bivalves were analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). It was evident that 45- hydroxy YTX (45-OH YTX), carboxy YTX (COOH YTX), and the putative 45-hydroxy-carboxy YTX (45-OH-COOH YTX) were the dominant YTX analogues in M. edulis. The oyster C. gigas displayed a different toxin profile. YTX, 45-OH YTX, and 45- OH-COOH YTX were also present, but COOH YTX was not detectable. Furthermore, 2 unidentified analogues with the same MS/MS transition ([M-H] > [M-H-S[O.sub.3]]) occurred in both bivalve species. Homo YTX and 45-hydroxy-homo YTX, which are regulated together with YTX and 45-OH YTX in 2002/225 EC were not detected. In general, we confirmed former field investigations on accumulation and metabolism of YTXs in M. edulis; however, this is the first study on accumulation and metabolism of YTXs in the oyster C. gigas.

KEY WORDS: marine toxins, shellfish toxicity, yessotoxin, YTX, 45-hydroxy yessotoxin, carboxy yessotoxin, keto yessotoxin, Protoceratium reticulatum, Gonyaulax grindleyi, blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, LC-MS/MS, metabolism

INTRODUCTION

Yessotoxin (YTX), a disulfated polyether toxin was first isolated by Murata et al. (1987) from the digestive glands of Japanese scallops (Patinopecten yessoensis). To the present, YTX has been detected in phytoplankton and shellfish from New Zealand (MacKenzie et al. 1998), Japan (Suzuki et al. 2007), Italy (Ciminiello et al. 1997, Ciminiello et al. 2003), Chile (Yasumoto & Takizawa 1997), Norway (Aasen et al. 2005), Canada (Paz et al. 2008), the United States (Paz et al. 2007), Spain (Paz et al. 2004, Paz et al. 2007), and Africa (Krock et al. 2006).

Three species of dinoflagellates have been identified as causative organisms: Protoceratium reticulatum (Claparede & Lachmann) Buetschli (=Gonyaulax grindleyi) (Satake et al. 1997), Lingulodinium polyedrum (Stein) Dodge (=Gonyaulax polyedra) (Tubaro et al. 1998, Draisci et al. 1999), and Gonyaulax spinifera (Claparede & Lachmann) Diesing (Rhodes et al. 2006, Riccardi et al. 2009). Meanwhile, the production of YTX by the dinoflagellate P. reticulatum has been reported in New Zealand (Satake et al. 1997), Japan (Satake et al. 1999), Norway (Ramstad et al. 2001, Samdal et al. 2004), and Africa (Krock et al. 2006).

Many different YTX analogues were detected until now, but of about 100 YTXs, only 40% are characterized concerning their exact chemical structure (Paz et al. 2008). The best known modifications at the YTX backbone are insertion of a methyl group between C-1 and C-2 (e.g., la-homo YTX) as well as between C-41 and C-42 (e.g., 41a-homo YTX), methylation of C-9 (e.g., 9-Me-41a homo YTX), glycosylation of C-32 (e.g., glyco YTX A), several modifications at the unsaturated side chain (e.g., carboxylation (COOH YTX), hydroxylation (45-OH YTX, 44,55-di OH YTX), addition of...

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A255839417