Diet Quality Indices in the SUN Cohort: Observed Changes and Predictors of Changes in Scores Over a 10-Year Period.

Citation metadata

Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishers
Document Type: Report; Author abstract
Length: 686 words

Document controls

Main content

Abstract :

Keywords Diet quality; Quality index; Cohort; Adults; Longitudinal study Abstract Background Dietary quality indices (DQI) are widely used in nutritional epidemiology. However, how they might change over time in a Mediterranean population is not well understood. Objective To evaluate within-participant longitudinal changes in scores for nine a priori--defined DQIs: Fat Quality Index (FQI), Carbohydrate Quality Index (CQI), Pro-vegetarian Dietary Pattern (PVG), Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS), Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay Diet (MIND), Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS) and Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010) in the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) cohort, a well-known Mediterranean cohort of university graduates, and to identify baseline predictors of improvement in MEDAS and AHEI-2010 after 10 years of follow-up. Design In this longitudinal cohort study, DQI scores were calculated based on responses from a validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Participants/setting Spanish university graduates enrolled in the SUN cohort before March 2008, who completed the 10-year FFQ and reported total dietary intake at baseline and after 10 years of follow-up, included 2,244 men and 3,271 women, whose mean age at baseline was 36.3 years (standard deviation [SD], 10.7). Main outcome measures Main outcome measures were within-participant longitudinal changes for FQI, CQI, PVG, MEDAS, MDS, DASH, MIND, PDQS, and AHEI-2010. Statistical analyses performed Adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate within-participant longitudinal changes and to identify baseline predictors of improvements [greater than or equal to]10% in MEDAS and AHEI-2010 scores after 10 years of follow-up. Results The comparison of the nine scores of DQI calculated at baseline and after 10 years of follow-up showed an improvement in all DQI scores except for PDQS. The greatest changes in DQIs were found for MEDAS (from 6.2 to 7.2, +22.9%) and MDS (from 4.3 to 4.4, +15.4%). The strongest predictors at baseline for [greater than or equal to]10% improvements in MEDAS or AHEI-2010 scores varied across indices. Being female, [greater than or equal to]35 years old, and more physically active at baseline were associated with improvement, whereas snacking between meals was associated with Conclusions In this cohort, the changes in nine a priori-defined DQI scores suggested modest improvements in diet quality, in which MEDAS and MDS scores showed the largest improvements. Additional longitudinal studies, especially intervention trials with long follow-up, are warranted to establish the most appropriate DQIs to assess long-term changes in diet quality in adult populations. Author Affiliation: (1) University of Navarra, School of Pharmacy and Nutrition, Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences and Physiology, Campus Universitario, Pamplona, Spain (2) University of Navarra, School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Campus Universitario, Pamplona, Spain (3) IdiSNA, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Navarra (4) CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn); Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain (5) University of Navarra, IdiSNA, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Navarra (6) University of Navarra, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public, School of Medicine--Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Spain (7) CIBER Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain (8) University of Navarra, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine--Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Spain (9) CIBERobn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spain (10) Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA * Address correspondence to: Itziar Zazpe, School of Pharmacy and Nutrition, Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences and Physiology, Campus Universitario, 31080 Pamplona, SPAIN. Article History: Received 21 January 2020; Accepted 16 March 2021 (footnote) Supplementary materials: and and are available at www.jandonline.org(http://www.jandonline.org) (footnote) STATEMENT OF POTENTIAL CONFLICT OF INTEREST No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. (footnote) FUNDING/SUPPORT This project was supported by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III and European Regional Development Fund (FEDER) (RD 06/0045, CIBER-OBN, Grants PI10/02658, PI10/02293, PI13/00615, PI14/01668, PI14/01798, PI14/01764, PI17/01795, PI20/00564 and G03/140), the Navarra Regional Government (45/2011, 122/2014, 41/2016), and the University of Navarra.s Byline: Itziar Zazpe, PhD [izazpe@unav.es] (1,2,3,4,*), Susana Santiago, PhD (1,5), Estefanía Toledo, MD (3,6,7), Maira Bes-Rastrollo, PhD (3,7,8), Carmen de la Fuente-Arrillaga, RD (2,3,9), Miguel Ángel Martínez-González, MD (2,3,4,10)

Source Citation

Source Citation   

Gale Document Number: GALE|A676152130