Diversity, biogeography, and reproductive evolution in the genus Pipa (Amphibia: Anura: Pipidae).

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Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Document Type: Report
Length: 581 words

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Keywords Amazonia; Atlantic Forest; Endotrophy; Neogene; Species delimitation Highlights * Molecular data suggest the existence of 15 species within Pipa. * Saturation of mtDNA causes overestimated divergence times compared to nuDNA. * Diversification started during the early Neogene probably in Amazonia. * Amazonian lineages have probably acquired endotrophic development independently. Abstract The genus Pipa is a species-poor clade of Neotropical frogs and one of the most bizarre-looking due to many highly derived anatomical traits related to their fully aquatic lifestyle. With their African relatives, they form the Pipidae family, which has attracted much attention, especially regarding its anatomy, reproductive biology, paleontology and biogeography. However, the actual diversity and phylogenetic relationships within Pipa remain poorly understood, and thus so do their historical biogeography and the evolution of striking features, such as the absence of teeth and endotrophy in some species. Using short mtDNA sequences across the distribution of the genus, we identified 15 main lineages (Operational Taxonomic Units - OTUs). This more than doubles the number of the currently seven valid nominal species. Several closely related OTUs do not share nuDNA alleles, confirming species divergence. Time-calibrated phylogenies obtained from mitogenomes and from 10 nuclear loci provide highly similar topologies but strikingly distinct node ages for Pipa. High dN/dS ratios and the variation of substitution rates across the trees suggest a strong effect of saturation on fast evolving positions of mtDNA, producing a substantially shorter stem branch of Pipa. Focusing on the nuDNA topology, we inferred an early Neogene Amazonian origin of the diversification of Pipa, with an initial split between the Guiana-Brazilian Shields and Western Amazonia, a pattern observed in many other co-distributed groups. All the western species are edentate, suggesting a single loss in the genus. Each of these groups diversified further out of Amazonia, toward the Atlantic Forest and toward trans-Andean forests, respectively. These events are concomitant with paleogeographic changes and match patterns observed in other co-distributed taxonomic groups. The two Amazonian lineages have probably independently acquired endotrophic larval development. Author Affiliation: (a) Laboratoire Evolution et Diversité Biologique, UMR 5174, CNRS, IRD, Université Paul Sabatier, Bâtiment 4R1 31062 cedex 9, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31077 Toulouse, France (b) Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution de Montpellier, Université de Montpellier, Bâtiment 22 -- CC065, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095, Montpellier cedex 5, France (c) Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Zoologia, São Paulo, SP, Brazil (d) Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Coordenação de Biodiversidade, Avenida André Araújo 2936, 69080-971 Manaus, AM, Brazil (e) Departamento de Biologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 69080-900 Manaus, AM, Brazil (f) Department of Biology, Trinity University, San Antonio, TX 78212, USA (g) Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos, Alexander von Humboldt, Colecciones Biológicas, Carrera 8 # 15--08, Claustro de San Agustín, Villa de Leyva, Boyacá, Colombia (h) Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Direction des Collections, 57 rue Cuvier, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France (i) Department of Ecology and Vertebrate Zoology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lódz, 12/16 Banacha Str., Lódz 90-237, Poland (j) Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom (k) Museum of Zoology, Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden, Dresden, Germany * Corresponding author. Article History: Received 29 July 2021; Revised 22 December 2021; Accepted 16 February 2022 Byline: Antoine Fouquet [fouquet.antoine@gmail.com] (a,*), Josselin Cornuault (b), Miguel T. Rodrigues (c), Fernanda P. Werneck (d), Tomas Hrbek (e,f), Andrés R. Acosta-Galvis (g), David Massemin (h), Philippe J.R. Kok (i,j), Raffael Ernst (k)

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A699113564