Do Multivitamin/Mineral Dietary Supplements for Young Children Fill Critical Nutrient Gaps?

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Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishers
Document Type: Report
Length: 684 words

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Keywords Children; Multivitamin/mineral; Dietary supplement; Formulations; Daily Value; Dietary Guidelines Abstract Background Nearly a third of young US children take multivitamin/mineral (MVM) dietary supplements, yet it is unclear how formulations compare with requirements. Objective Describe the number and amounts of micronutrients contained in MVMs for young children and compare suggested amounts on product labels to micronutrient requirements. Design Cross-sectional. Setting All 288 MVMs on the market in the United States in the National Institutes of Health's Dietary Supplement Label Database in 2018 labeled for children 1 to Main outcome measures Number of MVM products and amounts per day of micronutrients in each product suggested on labels compared with requirements represented by age-appropriate Daily Values (DV). Micronutrients of public health concern identified by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) 2015-2020 (DGA 2015) and DGA 2020-2025 (DGA 2020) or those of concern for exceeding the upper tolerable intake levels. Statistical analyses Number of products and percent DV per day provided by each micronutrient in each product. Results The 288 MVMs contained a mean of 10.1 [plus or minus] 2.27 vitamins and 4.59 [plus or minus] 2.27 minerals. The most common were, in rank order, vitamins C, A, D, E, B.sub.6, B.sub.12; zinc, biotin, pantothenic acid, iodine, and folic acid. For micronutrients denoted by the DGA 2015 and DGA 2020 of public health concern, 56% of the 281 products containing vitamin D, 4% of the 144 with calcium, and none of the 60 containing potassium provided at least half of the DV. The upper tolerable intake level was exceeded by 49% of 197 products with folic acid, 17% of 283 with vitamin A, and 14% of 264 with zinc. Most MVMs contained many of 16 other vitamins and minerals identified in national surveys as already abundant in children's diets. Conclusions A reexamination of the amounts and types of micronutrients in MVMs might consider formulations that better fill critical gaps in intakes and avoid excess. Author Affiliation: (1) Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (2) Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana (3) Abt Associates, Rockville, Maryland (4) Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Bethesda, Maryland * Address correspondence to: Johanna T. Dwyer, DSc, RD Senior Nutrition Scientist (contractor), Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health, 6705 Rockledge Drive (Rockledge 1) Room 730 Bethesda, MD 20817 MSC 7991. Article History: Received 25 November 2020; Accepted 18 October 2021 (footnote) STATEMENT OF POTENTIAL CONFLICT OF INTEREST J. T. Dwyer holds stock in several food and drug companies; unrelated to this submission she serves on the scientific advisory boards of McCormick and Company, the Mushroom Council, as a nonpaid advisor to the bioactives committee of International Life Sciences Institute, North America (now IFANS); and was a one-time consultant for Nestle (2020). Unrelated to this submission, Regan L. Bailey has served as a consultant in the past to the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements, Nestle/Gerber, the General Mills Bell Institute, RTI International, and Nutrition Impact; has received travel support to present her research on dietary supplements; and is a trustee of the International Food Information Council. All other authors have nothing to disclose. (footnote) FUNDING/SUPPORT Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, and Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture. (footnote) AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS J. T. Dwyer, L. G. Saldanha, R. A. Bailen, E. Connor, and Y. Long designed the study. J. T. Dwyer drafted the manuscript. J. J. Gahche, N. Potischman, K. W. Andrews, P. R. Pehrsson, P. A. Gusev, R. L. Bailey, and S. Jun provided critical feedback on the manuscript draft. All authors reviewed and commented on subsequent draft. Byline: Johanna T. Dwyer, DSc, RD [dwyerj1@od.nih.gov] (1,*), Leila G. Saldanha, PhD, RD (1), Richard A. Bailen, MBA (1), Jaime J. Gahche, PhD, MPH (1), Nancy Potischman, PhD (1), Regan L. Bailey, PhD, MPH, RD (2), Shinyoung Jun, PhD (2), Yue Long, BA (3), Emily Connor, MPH (3), Karen W. Andrews, BS (4), Pamela R. Pehrsson, PhD (4), Pavel A. Gusev, PhD (4)

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A694142000