Waste-water treatment coupled with biodiesel production using microalgae: a bio-refinery approach

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Publisher: Knowledge Bylanes
Document Type: Article
Length: 7,300 words
Lexile Measure: 1430L

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Byline: Saba Shahid Gill Muhammad Aamer Mehmood Umer Rashid Muhammad Ibrahim Anam Saqib and Muhammad Rizwan Tabassum

ABSTRACTScarcity and non-renewable nature of petroleum based liquid fuels have made them an un-reliable source of energy. Excessive greenhouse gas emissions and the associated effects on global warming have become noteworthy environmental economic and social threats. In this milieu the development of renewable carbon- neutral and sustainable alternative energy sources has become inevitable. Biofuels have been found a promising alternative and a driving force for modern world. Different feed-stocks have been evaluated for biofuels production to date but microalgae have been found the most attractive due to their higher growth productivity higher lipid contents non-competitive nature with human food and their ability to grow on non-arable land using brackish or waste water. However there are a number of technological barriers that are still questioning the economic feasibility and competitiveness of such biofuels. On the other hand there are also a number of trade opportunities if we pay attention to the use of integrated system following the bio-refinery concept. Bio-refinery concept reflects the production of value added by-products along with the biofuels contributing to an overall escalation of the economic feasibility of the whole system. These types of systems may help to progress the competitiveness of biodiesel production using microalgae as a potential feedstock. This paper reviews the most recent and relevant information on such integrated systems. Several aspects related to the treatment of municipal and animal wastewater with simultaneous recovery of microalgae and the potential of biodiesel production are discussed. Bio-refinery concept also presenting new opportunities for the cost-effective production of biodiesel coupled with valuable non-fuel by-products. Keywords Alternative fuels Bio-refineryFossil fuel scarcityMicroalgaeWaste-water treatment Microalgae; potential feed stock for biodiesel productionFossil fuels are no-more sustainable for transportationand industrial purpose because of their ever-increasing demand and depleting supplies. In addition buildup of carbon dioxide due to combustion of fossil fuels is the serious environmental threat. These challenges have flashed the pursuit for alternative energy sources to serve as viable replacement to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and develop environmental sustainability. Therefore renewable raw materials have been explored for the biodiesel production which includes edible plants/seeds such as corn mustard canola soybean palm oil sunflower coconut and non-edible plants/ seeds such as jojoba castor pongame jatropha Cucumis melo Citrus reticulate Moringa oleifera seed oils and waste oils (Rashid et al. 2008; Sharma et al.2009; Yadav et al. 2010; Rashid et al. 2011; Rashid et al. 2012; Diaz and Borges ; Sumithrabai et al. 2012; Rashid et al. 2013). However these resources have certainly several limitations such as; competition with human food use of arable land longer cultivation

periods lower yield use of fresh water for their growth and seasonal production (e.g. once a year). These factors have made plants as un-popular feed-stocks for biodiesel production. Among the many options microalgae have received massive attention as a source for the production of biofuels. They are being considered to be the cheapest source among all the renewable...

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A376502900