Dissecting the Shared Genetic Architecture of Suicide Attempt, Psychiatric Disorders, and Known Risk Factors.

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From: Biological Psychiatry(Vol. 91, Issue 3)
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Document Type: Report
Length: 7,678 words

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Keywords Genetic correlation; Genome-wide association study; Pleiotropy; Polygenicity; Suicide; Suicide attempt Abstract Background Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide, and nonfatal suicide attempts, which occur far more frequently, are a major source of disability and social and economic burden. Both have substantial genetic etiology, which is partially shared and partially distinct from that of related psychiatric disorders. Methods We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 29,782 suicide attempt (SA) cases and 519,961 controls in the International Suicide Genetics Consortium (ISGC). The GWAS of SA was conditioned on psychiatric disorders using GWAS summary statistics via multitrait-based conditional and joint analysis, to remove genetic effects on SA mediated by psychiatric disorders. We investigated the shared and divergent genetic architectures of SA, psychiatric disorders, and other known risk factors. Results Two loci reached genome-wide significance for SA: the major histocompatibility complex and an intergenic locus on chromosome 7, the latter of which remained associated with SA after conditioning on psychiatric disorders and replicated in an independent cohort from the Million Veteran Program. This locus has been implicated in risk-taking behavior, smoking, and insomnia. SA showed strong genetic correlation with psychiatric disorders, particularly major depression, and also with smoking, pain, risk-taking behavior, sleep disturbances, lower educational attainment, reproductive traits, lower socioeconomic status, and poorer general health. After conditioning on psychiatric disorders, the genetic correlations between SA and psychiatric disorders decreased, whereas those with nonpsychiatric traits remained largely unchanged. Conclusions Our results identify a risk locus that contributes more strongly to SA than other phenotypes and suggest a shared underlying biology between SA and known risk factors that is not mediated by psychiatric disorders. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (b) Department of Neuroscience, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (c) Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (d) Department of Biostatistics, Columbia University, New York, New York (e) Departments of Psychiatry and Radiology, Columbia University, New York, New York (f) Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, New York (g) Department of Psychiatry, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York (h) Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, New York, New York (i) Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York (j) Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York (k) Division of Translational Epidemiology, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York (l) Division of Genetic Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Genetics Institute, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee (m) Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee (n) Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee (o) Department of Genetics and Computational Biology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (p) Genetics and Computational Biology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (q) School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (r) Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (s) Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (t) Centre for Children's Health Research, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (u) School of Psychology and Counseling, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (v) National Institute for Health Research Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom (w) Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Department of Psychological Medicine, London, United Kingdom (x) Institute of Psychology, Psychiatry & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom (y) Department of Medical & Molecular Genetics, King's College London, London, United Kingdom (z) Social Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, King's College London, London, United Kingdom (aa) National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, King's College London and South London and Maudsley National Health Service Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom (ab) Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, United Kingdom (ac) Genetics, BioMarin Pharmaceuticals, London, United Kingdom (ad) Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (ae) Department of Psychiatry, Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare Center, West Haven, Connecticut (af) Division of Human Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (ag) Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (ah) Department of Psychiatry, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah (ai) Biomedical Informatics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah (aj) Centre for Genomics and Personalized Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark (ak) Centre for Integrative Sequencing, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark (al) Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark (am) National Centre for Register-Based Research, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark (an) Centre for Integrated Register-based Research, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark (ao) Psychosis Research Unit, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark (ap) Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCH, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark (aq) Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCH, Aarhus, Denmark (ar) Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (as) Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (at) Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (au) School of Psychology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia (av) Division of Paediatrics, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia (aw) Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (ax) Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (ay) Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (az) Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom (ba) Institute for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom (bb) Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany (bc) Department of Psychiatry, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin Institute of Health, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany (bd) Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Semel Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (be) David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (bf) Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (bg) Jane and Terry Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Los Angeles, California (bh) Biostatistics Research Center, Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health and Human Longevity Science, La Jolla, California (bi) Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (bj) Institute for Genomic Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (bk) Department of Psychiatry and School of Public Health, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (bl) Department of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California (bm) Center for Behavioral Genomics, Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California (bn) Department of Psychiatry, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan (bo) Department of Psychiatry, 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Massachusetts (bz) Population Studies Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (ca) Center for Statistical Genetics and Department of Biostatistics, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (cb) Survery Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (cc) BioRealm, LLC, Walnut, California (cd) Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, Oregon (ce) Department of Psychiatry, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (cf) Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (cg) Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (ch) Center for Applied Genomics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (ci) VISN 4 Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Corporal Michael J. 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Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany (dl) Institute of Psychiatric Phenomics and Genomics, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany (dm) Department of Psychiatry, University of Munich, Munich, Germany (dn) Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany (do) Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology, Munich, Germany (dp) Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (dq) Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (dr) Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (ds) Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (dt) Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (du) Department of Paediatric Laboratory Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (dv) Department of Genetics and Genomic Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (dw) Centre for Mental Health, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (dx) Program for Eating Disorders, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (dy) Molecular Brain Science, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (dz) Molecular Brain Science, Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (ea) Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York (eb) Eating Recovery Center, Denver, Colorado (ec) Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida (ed) Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, Lansing, Michigan (ee) Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center, Mainz, Germany (ef) Department of Clinical Psychology, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Washington, DC (eg) Behavioral Health Services, Kaiser Permanente Washington, Seattle, Washington, DC (eh) 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Bekhterev National Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Neurology, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation (en) National Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention of Mental Ill-Health, LIME, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden (eo) Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden (ep) Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden (eq) Institut of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden (er) Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden (es) Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry, Umeå University Medical Faculty, Umeå, Sweden (et) Department of Psychiatric Research, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway (eu) NORMENT, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway (ev) Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway (ew) Department of Medical Genetics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway (ex) NORMENT, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway (ey) Division of Mental Health and Addiction, University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oslo, Norway (ez) Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia (fa) Department of Psychiatry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada (fb) National Institute of Mental Health, Klecany, Czech Republic (fc) Psychiatry, Berkshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, Bracknell, United Kingdom (fd) Institute of Biological Psychiatry, Copenhagen Mental Health Services, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark (fe) Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCH, Copenhagen, Denmark (ff) Danish Research Institute for Suicide Prevention, Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark (fg) Center for Neonatal Screening, Department for Congenital Disorders, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark (fh) Mental Health Center Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark (fi) Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark (fj) Lundbeck Foundation GeoGenetics Centre, GLOBE Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark (fk) Biomedical Network Research Centre on Mental Health, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain (fl) Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany (fm) Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany (fn) Department of Psychiatry, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal (fo) Laboratory of Developmental Psychiatry, Adult Division, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (fp) ADHD Outpatient Program, Adult Division, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (fq) Department of Genetics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (fr) Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (fs) Department of Psychiatry, Melbourne Medical School, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (ft) Department of Psychiatry, University of Münster, Münster, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany (fu) Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University of Münster, Münster, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany (fv) Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (fw) Department of Psychiatry & Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (fx) Department of Psychiatry, UMC Utrecht Hersencentrum, Utrecht, the Netherlands (fy) School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (fz) School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (ga) School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (gb) 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of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada (hd) Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada (he) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada (hf) Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, Montreal, Québec, Canada (hg) Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, Sklodowska-Curie Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland (hh) Research Institute, Lindner Center of HOPE, Mason, Ohio (hi) Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit and GGZ inGeest, Amsterdam, Netherlands (hj) Mental Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway (hk) Psychiatry, St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway (hl) University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom (hm) Psychiatry and Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (hn) Psychiatry, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (ho) College of Medicine Institute for Genomic Health, SUNY Downstate Medical Center College of Medicine, Brooklyn, New York (hp) Institute for Genomic Health, SUNY Downstate Medical Center College of Medicine, Brooklyn, New York (hq) Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (hr) Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom (hs) University of Oxford, St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, United Kingdom (ht) Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany (hu) Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas Universidade de Sao Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (hv) Human Genetics Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland (hw) Department of Psychiatry, Uniformed University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (hx) Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (hy) Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany (hz) Department of Biomedical and NeuroMotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy (ia) Menninger Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (ib) Laboratory of Neuropsychiatry, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy (ic) Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lódz, Poland (id) Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (ie) Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (if) VISN 6 Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research, Durham Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Durham, North Carolina (ig) Cooperative Studies Program Epidemiology Center, Education, and Clinical Center, Durham Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Durham, North Carolina (ih) VA Health Services Research and Development Center of Innovation to Accelerate Discovery and Practice Transformation, Durham Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Durham, North Carolina (ii) Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (ij) Center of Mental Health Research, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia (ik) Estonian Genome Center, Institute of Genomics, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia (il) Neuroscience, Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Titusville, New Jersey (im) Department of Genetics and Computational Biology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (in) Department of Population Health, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (io) Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom * Address correspondence to Niamh Mullins, Ph.D. Article History: Received 5 January 2021; Revised 7 May 2021; Accepted 26 May 2021 (footnote) Major Depressive Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (footnote) Naomi R. Wray*,1,2, Stephan Ripke*,3,4,5, Manuel Mattheisen*,6,7,8, Maciej Trzaskowski1, Enda M. Byrne1, Abdel Abdellaoui9, Mark J. Adams10, Esben Agerbo11,12,13, Tracy M. Air14, Till F.M. Andlauer15,16, Silviu-Alin Bacanu17, Marie Bækvad-Hansen13,18, Aartjan T.F. Beekman19, Tim B. Bigdeli17,20, Elisabeth B. Binder15,21, Julien Bryois22, Henriette N. Buttenschøn13,23,24, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm13,18, Na Cai25,26, Enrique Castelao27, Jane Hvarregaard Christensen8,13,24, Toni-Kim Clarke10, Jonathan R.I. Coleman28, Lucía Colodro-Conde29, Baptiste Couvy-Duchesne2,30, Nick Craddock31, Gregory E. Crawford32,33, Gail Davies34, Franziska Degenhardt35, Eske M. Derks29, Nese Direk36,37, Conor V. Dolan9, Erin C. Dunn38,39,40, Thalia C. Eley28, Valentina Escott-Price41, Farnush Farhadi Hassan Kiadeh42, Hilary K. Finucane43,44, Jerome C. Foo45, Andreas J. Forstner35,46,47,48, Josef Frank45, Héléna A. Gaspar28, Michael Gill49, Fernando S. Goes50, Scott D. Gordon29, Shantel Marie Weinsheimer13,54, Jürgen Wellmann101, Gonneke Willemsen9, Stephanie H. Witt45, Yang Wu1, Hualin S. Xi112, Jian Yang2,113, Futao Zhang1, Volker Arolt114, Bernhard T. Baune114,115,116, Klaus Berger101, Dorret I. Boomsma9, Sven Cichon35,47,117,118, Udo Dannlowski114, E.J.C. de Geus9,119, J. Raymond Depaulo50, Enrico Domenici120, Katharina Domschke121,122, Tõnu Esko5,78, Hans J. Grabe109, Steven P. Hamilton123, Jakob Grove8,13,24,51, Lynsey S. Hall10,52, Christine Søholm Hansen13,18, Thomas F. Hansen53,54,55, Stefan Herms35,47, Ian B. Hickie56, Per Hoffmann35,47, Georg Homuth57, Carsten Horn58, Jouke-Jan Hottenga9, David M. Hougaard13,18, David M. Howard10,28, Marcus Ising59, Rick Jansen19, Ian Jones60, Lisa A. Jones61, Eric Jorgenson62, James A. Knowles63, Isaac S. Kohane64,65,66, Julia Kraft4, Warren W. Kretzschmar67, Zoltán Kutalik68,69, Yihan Li67, Penelope A. Lind29, Donald J. MacIntyre70,71, Dean F. MacKinnon50, Robert M. Maier2, Wolfgang Maier72, Jonathan Marchini73, Hamdi Mbarek9, Patrick McGrath74, Peter McGuffin28, Sarah E. Medland29, Divya Mehta2,75, Christel M. Middeldorp9,76,77, Evelin Mihailov78, Yuri Milaneschi19, Lili Milani78, Francis M. Mondimore50, Grant W. Montgomery1, Sara Mostafavi79, 80, Niamh Mullins28, Matthias Nauck81,82, Bernard Ng80, Michel G. Nivard9, Dale R. Nyholt83, Paul F. O'Reilly28, Hogni Oskarsson84, Caroline Hayward124, Andrew C. Heath89, Kenneth S. Kendler17, Stefan Kloiber59,125,126, Glyn Lewis127, Qingqin S. Li128, Susanne Lucae59, Pamela A.F. Madden89, Patrik K. Magnusson22, Nicholas G. Martin29, Andrew M. McIntosh10,34, Andres Metspalu78,129, Ole Mors13,130, Preben Bo Mortensen11,12,13,24, Bertram Müller-Myhsok15,131,132, Merete Nordentoft13,133, Markus M. Nöthen35, Michael C. O'Donovan60, Sara A. Paciga134, Nancy L. Pedersen22, Michael J. Owen60, Jodie N. Painter29, Carsten Bøcker Pedersen11,12,13, Marianne Giørtz Pedersen11,12,13, Roseann E. Peterson17,85, Wouter J. Peyrot19, Giorgio Pistis27, Danielle Posthuma86,87, Jorge A. Quiroz88, Per Qvist8,13,24, John P. Rice89, Brien P. Riley17, Margarita Rivera28,90, Saira Saeed Mirza36, Robert Schoevers91, Eva C. Schulte92,93, Ling Shen62, Jianxin Shi94, Stanley I. Shyn95, Engilbert Sigurdsson96, Grant C.B. Sinnamon97, Johannes H. Smit19, Daniel J. Smith98, Hreinn Stefansson99, Stacy Steinberg99, Fabian Streit45, Jana Strohmaier45, Katherine E. Tansey100, Henning Teismann101, Alexander Teumer102, Wesley Thompson13,54,103,104, Pippa A. Thomson105, Thorgeir E. Thorgeirsson99, Matthew Traylor106, Jens Treutlein45, Vassily Trubetskoy4, André G. Uitterlinden107, Daniel Umbricht108, Sandra Van der Auwera109, Albert M. van Hemert110, Alexander Viktorin22, Peter M. Visscher1,2, Yunpeng Wang13,54,104, Bradley T. Webb111, Brenda W.J.H. Penninx19, Roy H. Perlis38,135, David J. Porteous105, James B. Potash136, Martin Preisig27, Marcella Rietschel45, Catherine Schaefer62, Thomas G. Schulze45,93,137,138,139, Jordan W. Smoller38,39,40, Kari Stefansson99,140, Henning Tiemeier36,141,142, Rudolf Uher143, Henry Völzke102, Myrna M. Weissman74,144, Thomas Werge13,54,145, Cathryn M. Lewis*,28,146, Douglas F. Levinson*,147, Gerome Breen*,28,148, Anders D. Børglum*,8,13,24, and Patrick F. Sullivan*,22,149,150 (footnote) See for all affiliations of consortium members. (footnote) Bipolar Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (footnote) Niamh Mullins1,2, Andreas J. Forstner3,4,5, Kevin S. O'Connell6,7, Brandon Coombes8, Jonathan R.I. Coleman9,10, Zhen Qiao11, Thomas D. Als12,13,14, Tim B. Bigdeli15,16, Sigrid Børte17,18,19, Julien Bryois20, Alexander W. Charney2, Ole Kristian Drange21,22, Michael J. Gandal23, Saskia P. Hagenaars9,10, Masashi Ikeda24, Nolan Kamitaki25,26, Minsoo Kim23, Kristi Krebs27, Georgia Panagiotaropoulou28, Brian M. Schilder1,29,30,31, Laura G. Sloofman1, Stacy Steinberg32, Vassily Trubetskoy28, Bendik S. Winsvold19,33, Hong-Hee Won34, Liliya Abramova35, Kristina Adorjan36,37, Esben Agerbo14,38,39, Mariam Al Eissa40, Diego Albani41, Ney Alliey-Rodriguez42,43, Adebayo Anjorin44, Verneri Antilla45, Anastasia Antoniou46, Swapnil Awasthi28, Ji Hyun Baek47, Marie Bækvad-Hansen14,48, Nicholas Bass40, Michael Bauer49, Eva C. Beins3, Sarah E. Bergen20, Armin Birner50, Carsten Bøcker Pedersen14,38,39, Erlend Bøen51, Marco P. Boks52, Rosa Bosch53,54,55,56, Murielle Brum57, Ben M. Brumpton19, Nathalie Brunkhorst-Kanaan57, Monika Budde36, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm14,48, William Byerley58, Murray Cairns59, Miquel Casas53,54,55,56, Pablo Cervantes60, Toni-Kim Clarke61, Cristiana Cruceanu60,62, Alfredo Cuellar-Barboza63,64, Julie Cunningham65, David Curtis66,67, Piotr M. Czerski68, Anders M. Dale69, Nina Dalkner50, Friederike S. David3, Franziska Degenhardt3,70, Srdjan Djurovic71,72, Amanda L. Dobbyn1,2, Athanassios Douzenis46, Torbjørn Elvsåshagen18,73,74, Valentina Escott-Price75, I. Nicol Ferrier76, Alessia Fiorentino40, Tatiana M. Foroud77, Liz Forty75, Josef Frank78, Oleksandr Frei6,18, Nelson B. Freimer23,79, Louise Frisén80, Katrin Gade36,81, Julie Garnham82, Joel Gelernter83,84,85, Marianne Giørtz Pedersen14,38,39, Ian R. Gizer86, Scott D. Gordon87, Katherine Gordon-Smith88, Tiffany A. Greenwood89, Jakob Grove12,13,14,90, José Guzman-Parra91, Kyooseob Ha92, Magnus Haraldsson93, Martin Hautzinger94, Urs Heilbronner36, Dennis Hellgren20, Stefan Herms3,95,96, Per Hoffmann3,95,96, Peter A. Holmans75, Laura Huckins1,2, Stéphane Jamain97,98, Jessica S. Johnson1,2, Janos L. Kalman36,37,99, Yoichiro Kamatani100,101, James L. Kennedy102,103,104,105, Sarah Kittel-Schneider57,106, James A. Knowles107,108, Manolis Kogevinas109, Maria Koromina110, Thorsten M. Kranz57, Henry R. Kranzler111,112, Michiaki Kubo113, Ralph Kupka114,115,116, Steven A. Kushner117, Catharina Lavebratt118,119, Jacob Lawrence120, Markus Leber121, Heon-Jeong Lee122, Phil H. Lee123, Shawn E. Levy124, Catrin Lewis75, Calwing Liao125,126, Susanne Lucae62, Martin Lundberg118,119, Donald J. MacIntyre127, Sigurdur H. Magnusson32, Wolfgang Maier128, Adam Maihofer89, Dolores Malaspina1,2, Eirini Maratou129, Lina Martinsson80, Manuel Mattheisen12,13,14,106,130, Nathaniel W. McGregor131, Peter McGuffin9, James D. McKay132, Helena Medeiros108, Sarah E Medland87, Vincent Millischer118,119, Grant W. Montgomery11, Jennifer L. Moran25,133, Derek W. Morris134, Thomas W. Mühleisen4,95, Niamh O'Brien40, Claire O'Donovan82, Loes M. Olde Loohuis23,79, Lilijana Oruc135, Sergi Papiol36,37, Antonio F. Pardiñas75, Amy Perry88, Andrea Pfennig49, Evgenia Porichi46, James B. Potash136, Digby Quested137,138, Towfique Raj1,29,30,31, Mark H. Rapaport139, J. Raymond DePaulo136, Eline J. Regeer140, John P. Rice141, Fabio Rivas91, Margarita Rivera142,143, Julian Roth106, Panos Roussos1,2,29, Douglas M. Ruderfer144, Cristina Sánchez-Mora53,54,56,145, Eva C. Schulte36,37, Fanny Senner36,37, Sally Sharp40, Paul D. Shilling89, Engilbert Sigurdsson93,146, Lea Sirignano78, Claire Slaney82, Olav B. Smeland6,7, Daniel J. Smith147, Janet L. Sobell148, Christine Søholm Hansen14,48, Maria Soler Artigas53,54,56,145, Anne T. Spijker149, Dan J. Stein150, John S. Strauss102, Beata Swiatkowska151, Chikashi Terao101, Thorgeir E. Thorgeirsson32, Claudio Toma152,153,154, Paul Tooney59, Evangelia-Eirini Tsermpini110, Marquis P. Vawter155, Helmut Vedder156, James T.R. Walters75, Stephanie H. Witt78, Simon Xi157, Wei Xu158, Jessica Mei Kay Yang75, Allan H. Young159,160, Hannah Young1, Peter P. Zandi136, Hang Zhou83,84, Lea Zillich78, HUNT All-In Psychiatry161, Rolf Adolfsson162, Ingrid Agartz51,130,163, Martin Alda82,164, Lars Alfredsson165, Gulja Babadjanova166, Lena Backlund118,119, Bernhard T. Baune167,168,169, Frank Bellivier170,171, Susanne Bengesser50, Wade H. Berrettini172, Douglas H.R. Blackwood61, Michael Boehnke173, Anders D. Børglum14,174,175, Gerome Breen9,10, Vaughan J. Carr176, Stanley Catts177, Aiden Corvin178, Nicholas Craddock75, Udo Dannlowski167, Dimitris Dikeos179, Tõnu Esko26,27,180,181, Bruno Etain170,171, Panagiotis Ferentinos9,46, Mark Frye64, Janice M. Fullerton152,153, Micha Gawlik106, Elliot S. Gershon42,182, Fernando S. Goes136, Melissa J. Green152,176, Maria Grigoroiu-Serbanescu183, Joanna Hauser68, Frans Henskens59, Jan Hillert80, Kyung Sue Hong47, David M. Hougaard14,48, Christina M. Hultman20, Kristian Hveem19,184, Nakao Iwata24, Assen V. Jablensky185, Ian Jones75, Lisa A Jones88, René S. Kahn2,52, John R. Kelsoe89, George Kirov75, Mikael Landén20,186, Marion Leboyer97,98,187, Cathryn M. Lewis9,10,188, Qingqin S. Li189, Jolanta Lissowska190, Christine Lochner191, Carmel Loughland59, Nicholas G. Martin87,192, Carol A. Mathews193, Fermin Mayoral91, Susan L. McElroy194, Andrew M. McIntosh127,195, Francis J. McMahon196, Ingrid Melle6,197, Patricia Michie59, Lili Milani27, Philip B. Mitchell176, Gunnar Morken21,198, Ole Mors14,199, Preben Bo Mortensen12,14,38,39, Bryan Mowry177, Bertram Müller-Myhsok62,200,201, Richard M. Myers124, Benjamin M. Neale25,45,180, Caroline M. Nievergelt89,202, Merete Nordentoft14,203, Markus M. Nöthen3, Michael C. O'Donovan75, Ketil J. Oedegaard204,205, Tomas Olsson206, Michael J. Owen75, Sara A. Paciga207, Chris Pantelis208, Carlos Pato108, Michele T. Pato108, George P. Patrinos110,209,210, Roy H. Perlis211,212, Danielle Posthuma213,214, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga53,54,55,56, Andreas Reif57, Eva Z. Reininghaus50, Marta Ribasés53,54,56,145, Marcella Rietschel78, Stephan Ripke25,28,45, Guy A. Rouleau126,215, Takeo Saito24, Ulrich Schall59, Martin Schalling118,119, Peter R. Schofield152,153, Thomas G. Schulze36,78,81,136,216, Laura J. Scott173, Rodney J. Scott59, Alessandro Serretti217, Cynthia Shannon Weickert152,176,218, Jordan W. Smoller25,133,219, Hreinn Stefansson32, Kari Stefansson32,220, Eystein Stordal221,222, Fabian Streit78, Patrick F. Sullivan20,223,224, Gustavo Turecki225, Arne E. Vaaler226, Eduard Vieta227, John B. Vincent102, Irwin D. Waldman228, Thomas W. Weickert152,176,218, Thomas Werge14,229,230,231, Naomi R. Wray11,232, John-Anker Zwart18,19,33, Joanna M. Biernacka8,64, John I. Nurnberger233, Sven Cichon3,4,95,96, Howard J. Edenberg77,234, Eli A. Stahl1,2,180, Andrew McQuillin40, Arianna Di Florio75,224, Roel A. Ophoff23,79,117,235, and Ole A. Andreassen6,7 (footnote) See for all affiliations of consortium members. (footnote) Eating Disorders Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (footnote) Roger A.H. Adan1,2,3, Lars Alfredsson4, Tetsuya Ando5, Ole A. Andreassen6, Harald Aschauer7, Jessica H. Baker8, Vladimir Bencko9, Andrew W. Bergen10,11, Wade H. Berrettini12, Andreas Birgegård13,14,15, Joseph M. Boden16, Ilka Boehm17, Claudette Boni18, Vesna Boraska Perica19,20, Harry Brandt21, Gerome Breen22,23, Julien Bryois15, Katharina Buehren24, Cynthia M. Bulik8,15,25, Roland Burghardt26, Laura Carlberg27, Matteo Cassina28, Sven Cichon29,30,31, Maurizio Clementi28, Jonathan R.I. Coleman22,23, Roger D. Cone32, Philippe Courtet33, Steven Crawford21, Scott Crow34, James J. Crowley13,35, Unna N. Danner2, Oliver S.P. Davis36,37, Martina de Zwaan38, George Dedoussis39, Daniela Degortes40, Janiece E. DeSocio41, Danielle M. Dick42,43,44, Dimitris Dikeos45, Christian Dina46, Monika Dmitrzak-Weglarz47, Elisa Docampo Martinez48,49,50, Laramie E. Duncan51, Karin Egberts52, Christian R. Marshall126, Nicholas G. Martin72, Manuel Mattheisen13,14,75,127, Morten Mattingsdal6, Sara McDevitt128,129, Peter McGuffin22, Sarah E. Medland72, Andres Metspalu53,130, Ingrid Meulenbelt131, Nadia Micali132,133, James Mitchell134, Karen Mitchell135,136, Palmiero Monteleone137, Alessio Maria Monteleone124, Grant W. Montgomery72,86,138, Preben Bo Mortensen76,114,115, Melissa A. Munn-Chernoff8, Benedetta Nacmias139, Marie Navratilova63, Ioanna Ntalla39, Catherine M. Olsen140, Roel A. Ophoff141,142, Julie K. O'Toole143, Leonid Padyukov110, Aarno Palotie54,102,144, Jacques Pantel18, Hana Papezova97, Richard Parker72, John F. Pearson145, Nancy L. Pedersen15, Stefan Ehrlich17, Geòrgia Escaramís48,49,50, Tõnu Esko53,54, Thomas Espeseth55, Xavier Estivill48,49,50,56, Anne Farmer22, Angela Favaro40, Fernando Fernández-Aranda57,58, Manfred M. Fichter59,60, Krista Fischer53, James A.B. Floyd61, Manuel Föcker62, Lenka Foretova63, Andreas J. Forstner30,64,65,66, Monica Forzan28, Christopher S. Franklin19, Steven Gallinger67, Giovanni Gambaro68, Héléna A. Gaspar22,23, Ina Giegling69, Johanna Giuranna70, Paola Giusti-Rodríquez35, Fragiskos Gonidakis71, Scott Gordon72, Philip Gorwood73,74, Monica Gratacos Mayora48,49,50, Jakob Grove75,76,77,78, Sébastien Guillaume33, Yiran Guo79, Hakon Hakonarson79,80, Katherine A. Halmi81, Ken B. Hanscombe82, Konstantinos Hatzikotoulas19,83, Joanna Hauser84, Johannes Hebebrand70, Sietske G. Helder22,85, Anjali K. Henders86, Stefan Herms29,30, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann24, Wolfgang Herzog87, Anke Hinney70, L. John Horwood16, Christopher Hübel15,22, Liselotte V. Petersen76,114,115, Dalila Pinto88, Kirstin L. Purves22, Anu Raevuori101, Nicolas Ramoz18, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud112,146, Valdo Ricca147, Samuli Ripatti148, Stephan Ripke149,150,151, Franziska Ritschel17,152, Marion Roberts22, Dan Rujescu69, Filip Rybakowski154, Paolo Santonastaso155, André Scherag156, Stephen W. Scherer157,158, Ulrike Schmidt22, Nicholas J. Schork159, Alexandra Schosser160, Jochen Seitz24, Lenka Slachtova161, P. Eline Slagboom131, Margarita C.T. Slof-Op 't Landt162,163, Agnieszka Slopien164, Nicole Soranzo19,165,166,167, Sandro Sorbi139,168, Lorraine Southam19, Vidar W. Steen169,170, Michael Strober171,172, Laura M. Huckins88, James I. Hudson89, Hartmut Imgart90, Hidetoshi Inoko91, Vladimir Janout92, Susana Jiménez-Murcia57,58, Craig Johnson93, Jennifer Jordan94,95, Antonio Julià96, Gursharan Kalsi22, Deborah Kaminská97, Allan S. Kaplan98,99,100, Jaakko Kaprio101,102, Leila Karhunen103, Andreas Karwautz104, Martien J.H. Kas1,105, Walter H. Kaye106, James L. Kennedy98,99,100, Martin A. Kennedy107, Anna Keski-Rahkonen101, Kirsty Kiezebrink108, Youl-Ri Kim109, Katherine M. Kirk72, Lars Klareskog110, Kelly L. Klump111, Gun Peggy S. Knudsen112, Mikael Landén15,113, Janne T. Larsen76,114,115, Stephanie Le Hellard116,117,118, Virpi M. Leppä15, Dong Li79, Paul Lichtenstein15, Lisa Lilenfeld119, Bochao Danae Lin1, Jolanta Lissowska120, Astri Lundervold121, Jurjen Luykx1, Pierre J. Magistretti122,123, Mario Maj124, Katrin Mannik53,125, Sara Marsal96, Garret D. Stuber8,173, Patrick F. Sullivan8,15,35, Beata Swiatkowska174, Jin P. Szatkiewicz35, Ioanna Tachmazidou19, Elena Tenconi40, Laura M. Thornton8, Alfonso Tortorella175,176, Federica Tozzi177, Janet Treasure22, Artemis Tsitsika178, Marta Tyszkiewicz-Nwafor164, Konstantinos Tziouvas179, Annemarie A. van Elburg2,180, Eric F. van Furth162,163, Tracey D. Wade181, Gudrun Wagner104, Esther Walton17, Hunna J. Watson8,182,183, Thomas Werge184, David C. Whiteman140, H. Erich Wichmann185, Elisabeth Widen102, D. Blake Woodside99,100,186,187, Shuyang Yao15, Zeynep Yilmaz8,35, Eleftheria Zeggini19,83, Stephanie Zerwas8, and Stephan Zipfel188 (footnote) See for all affiliations of consortium members. (footnote) German Borderline Genomics Consortium (footnote) Stephanie H. Witt1, Fabian Streit1, Martin Jungkunz2,3, Josef Frank1, Swapnil Awasthi4, Jens Treutlein1, Lydie Dietl5, Cornelia E Schwarze6, Norbert Dahmen8, Björn H. Schott4,9, Markus M. Nöthen10,11, Stephan Ripke4,12,13, Arian Mobascher8, Dan Rujescu7, Klaus Lieb8, Stefan Roepke5, Christian Schmahl2, Martin Bohus3, and Marcella Rietschel1 (footnote) See for all affiliations of consortium members. (footnote) MVP Suicide Exemplar Workgroup (footnote) Silvia Crivelli, Ph.D. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), Michelle F. Dennis, B.A. (Durham Veterans Affairs Health Care System & Duke University School of Medicine), Phillip D. Harvey, Ph.D. (University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL), Bruce W. Carter (VA Medical Center), Jennifer E. Huffman, Ph.D. (Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology Research and Information Center, VA Boston Healthcare System), Daniel Jacobson, Ph.D. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), Ravi Madduri, Ph.D. (Argonne National Laboratory), Maren K. Olsen, Ph.D. (Duke University School of Medicine), and John Pestian, Ph.D. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory). (footnote) VA Million Veteran Program (MVP) (footnote) J. Michael Gaziano, M.D., M.P.H. (co-chair, VA Boston Healthcare System), Sumitra Muralidhar, Ph.D. (co-chair, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs), Rachel Ramoni, D.M.D., Sc.D. (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs), Jean Beckham, Ph.D. (Durham VA Medical Center), Kyong-Mi Chang, M.D. (Philadelphia VA Medical Center), Christopher J. O'Donnell, M.D., M.P.H. (VA Boston Healthcare System), Philip S. Tsao, Ph.D. (VA Palo Alto Health Care System), James Breeling, M.D. (Ex-Officio, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs), Grant Huang, Ph.D. (Ex-Officio, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs), and J.P. Casas Romero, M.D., Ph.D. (Ex-Officio, VA Boston Healthcare System). MVP Program Office: Sumitra Muralidhar, Ph.D., and Jennifer Moser, Ph.D., both of U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. MVP Recruitment/Enrollment: Recruitment/Enrollment Director/Deputy Director, Boston--Stacey B. Whitbourne, Ph.D., Jessica V. Brewer, M.P.H. (VA Boston Healthcare System). MVP Coordinating Centers: Clinical Epidemiology Research Center (CERC), West Haven--Mihaela Aslan, Ph.D. (West Haven VA Medical Center). Cooperative Studies Program Clinical Research Pharmacy Coordinating Center, Albuquerque--Todd Connor, Pharm.D., Dean P. Argyres, B.S., M.S. (New Mexico VA Health Care System). Genomics Coordinating Center, Palo Alto--Philip S. Tsao, Ph.D. (VA Palo Alto Health Care System). MVP Boston Coordinating Center, Boston--J. Michael Gaziano, M.D., M.P.H. (VA Boston Healthcare System). MVP Information Center, Canandaigua--Brady Stephens, M.S. (Canandaigua VA Medical Center). VA Central Biorepository, Boston--Mary T. Brophy, M.D., M.P.H., Donald E. Humphries, Ph.D., Luis E. Selva, Ph.D. (VA Boston Healthcare System). MVP Informatics, Boston--Nhan Do, M.D., Shahpoor Shayan (VA Boston Healthcare System). MVP Data Operations/Analytics, Boston--Kelly Cho, Ph.D. (VA Boston Healthcare System). MVP Science: Science Operations--Christopher J. O'Donnell, M.D., M.P.H. (VA Boston Healthcare System). Genomics Core-- Christopher J. O'Donnell, M.D., M.P.H., Saiju Pyarajan, Ph.D. (VA Boston Healthcare System), Philip S. Tsao, Ph.D. (VA Palo Alto Health Care System). Phenomics Core--Kelly Cho, M.P.H., Ph.D. (VA Boston Healthcare System). Data and Computational Sciences--Saiju Pyarajan, Ph.D. (VA Boston Healthcare System). Statistical Genetics--Elizabeth Hauser, Ph.D. (Durham VA Medical Center). Yan Sun, Ph.D. (Atlanta VA Medical Center). Hongyu Zhao, Ph.D. (West Haven VA Medical Center. Current MVP Local Site Investigators: Peter Wilson, M.D. (Atlanta VA Medical Center); Rachel McArdle, Ph.D. (Bay Pines VA Healthcare System); Louis Dellitalia, M.D. (Birmingham VA Medical Center); Kristin Mattocks, Ph.D., M.P.H. (Central Western Massachusetts Healthcare System); John Harley, M.D., Ph.D. (Cincinnati VA Medical Center); Clement J. Zablocki (VA Medical Center); Jeffrey Whittle, M.D., M.P.H.; Frank Jacono, M.D. (VA Northeast Ohio Healthcare System); Jean Beckham, Ph.D. (Durham VA Medical Center); Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial Veterans Hospital; Salvador Gutierrez, M.D. (Edward Hines, Jr. VA Medical Center); Gretchen Gibson, D.D.S., M.P.H. (Veterans Health Care System of the Ozarks); Kimberly Hammer, Ph.D. (Fargo VA Health Care System); Laurence Kaminsky, Ph.D. (VA Health Care Upstate New York); Gerardo Villareal, M.D. (New Mexico VA Health Care System); Scott Kinlay, M.B.B.S., Ph.D. (VA Boston Healthcare System); Junzhe Xu, M.D. (VA Western New York Healthcare System); Mark Hamner, M.D. (Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center); Roy Mathew, M.D. (Columbia VA Health Care System); Sujata Bhushan, M.D. (VA North Texas Health Care System); Pran Iruvanti, DO, Ph.D. (Hampton VA Medical Center); Michael Godschalk, M.D. (Richmond VA Medical Center); Zuhair Ballas, M.D. (Iowa City VA Health Care System); Douglas Ivins, M.D. (Eastern Oklahoma VA Health Care System); Stephen Mastorides, M.D. (James A. Haley Veterans' Hospital); Jonathan Moorman, M.D., Ph.D. (James H. Quillen VA Medical Center); Saib Gappy, M.D. (John D. Dingell VA Medical Center); Jon Klein, M.D., Ph.D. (Louisville VA Medical Center); Nora Ratcliffe, M.D. (Manchester VA Medical Center); Hermes Florez, M.D., Ph.D. (Miami VA Health Care System); Olaoluwa Okusaga, M.D. (Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center); Maureen Murdoch, M.D., M.P.H. (Minneapolis VA Health Care System); Peruvemba Sriram, M.D. (N FL/S GA Veterans Health System); Shing Shing Yeh, Ph.D., M.D. (Northport VA Medical Center); Neeraj Tandon, M.D. (Overton Brooks VA Medical Center); Darshana Jhala, M.D. (Philadelphia VA Medical Center); Samuel Aguayo, M.D. (Phoenix VA Health Care System); David Cohen, M.D. (Portland VA Medical Center); Satish Sharma, M.D. (Providence VA Medical Center); Suthat Liangpunsakul, M.D., M.P.H. (Richard Roudebush VA Medical Center); Kris Ann Oursler, M.D. (Salem VA Medical Center); Mary Whooley, M.D. (San Francisco VA Health Care System); Sunil Ahuja, M.D. (South Texas Veterans Health Care System); Joseph Constans, Ph.D. (Southeast Louisiana Veterans Health Care System); Paul Meyer, M.D., Ph.D. (Southern Arizona VA Health Care System); Jennifer Greco, M.D. (Sioux Falls VA Health Care System); Michael Rauchman, M.D. (St. Louis VA Health Care System); Richard Servatius, Ph.D. (Syracuse VA Medical Center); Melinda Gaddy, Ph.D. (VA Eastern Kansas Health Care System); Agnes Wallbom, M.D., M.S. (VA Greater Los Angeles Health Care System); Timothy Morgan, M.D. (VA Long Beach Healthcare System); Todd Stapley, D.O. (VA Maine Healthcare System); Scott Sherman, M.D., M.P.H. (VA New York Harbor Healthcare System); George Ross, M.D. (VA Pacific Islands Health Care System); Philip Tsao, Ph.D. (VA Palo Alto Health Care System); Patrick Strollo Jr., M.D. (VA Pittsburgh Health Care System); Edward Boyko, M.D. (VA Puget Sound Health Care System); Laurence Meyer, M.D., Ph.D. (VA Salt Lake City Health Care System); Samir Gupta, M.D., M.S.C.S. (VA San Diego Healthcare System); Mostaqul Huq, Pharm.D., Ph.D. (VA Sierra Nevada Health Care System); Joseph Fayad, M.D. (VA Southern Nevada Healthcare System); Adriana Hung, M.D., M.P.H. (VA Tennessee Valley Healthcare System); Jack Lichy, M.D., Ph.D. (Washington, DC VA Medical Center); Robin Hurley, M.D. (W.G., Bill Hefner VA Medical Center); Brooks Robey, M.D. (White River Junction VA Medical Center); and Robert Striker, M.D., Ph.D. (William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital). (footnote)1 NM and JK contributed equally to this work. Byline: Niamh Mullins [niamh.mullins@mssm.edu] (a,c,1,*), JooEun Kang (l,1), Adrian I. Campos (o,q), Jonathan R.I. Coleman (v,z), Alexis C. Edwards (ad), Hanga Galfalvy (d,f), Daniel F. Levey (ae,af), Adriana Lori (ag), Andrey Shabalin (ah), Anna Starnawska (aj,ak,al,ap), Mei-Hsin Su (ar), Hunna J. Watson (au,av,aw), Mark Adams (az), Swapnil Awasthi (bb), Michael Gandal (bd), Jonathan D. Hafferty (az), Akitoyo Hishimoto (bn), Minsoo Kim (bd), Satoshi Okazaki (bo), Ikuo Otsuka (f,bo), Stephan Ripke (bb,bp,bs), Erin B. Ware (bz,cb), Andrew W. Bergen (cc,cd), Wade H. Berrettini (ce), Martin Bohus (cj), Harry Brandt (cl), Xiao Chang (ch), Wei J. Chen (ar,as,co), Hsi-Chung Chen (as), Steven Crawford (cl), Scott Crow (cp), Emily DiBlasi (ah), Philibert Duriez (cs,ct), Fernando Fernández-Aranda (dc), Manfred M. Fichter (di,dj), Steven Gallinger (dp), Stephen J. Glatt (ea), Philip Gorwood (cs,ct), Yiran Guo (ch), Hakon Hakonarson (cg,ch), Katherine A. Halmi (g), Hai-Gwo Hwu (at), Sonia Jain (bh), Stéphane Jamain (cq), Susana Jiménez-Murcia (dc), Craig Johnson (eb), Allan S. Kaplan (dq,ds,dt), Walter H. Kaye (bl), Pamela K. Keel (ec), James L. Kennedy (dq,ds,dt), Kelly L. Klump (ed), Dong Li (ch), Shih-Cheng Liao (as), Klaus Lieb (ee), Lisa Lilenfeld (ef), Chih-Min Liu (as), Pierre J. Magistretti (eh,ei), Christian R. Marshall (du), James E. Mitchell (ej), Eric T. Monson (ah), Richard M. Myers (ek), Dalila Pinto (a,c), Abigail Powers (ag), Nicolas Ramoz (ct), Stefan Roepke (bc), Vsevolod Rozanov (el,em), Stephen W. Scherer (dv), Christian Schmahl (cj), Marcus Sokolowski (en), Michael Strober (be,bf), Laura M. Thornton (aw), Janet Treasure (w,aa), Ming T. Tsuang (bm), Stephanie H. Witt (ck), D. Blake Woodside (dq,ds,dw,dx), Zeynep Yilmaz (am,aw,ax), Lea Zillich (ck), Rolf Adolfsson (es), Ingrid Agartz (eo,et,eu), Tracy M. Air (ez), Martin Alda (fa,fb), Lars Alfredsson (ep,eq), Ole A. 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Bigdeli, Elisabeth B. Binder, Julien Bryois, Henriette N. Buttenschøn, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm, Na Cai, Enrique Castelao, Jane Hvarregaard Christensen, Toni-Kim Clarke, Jonathan R.I. Coleman, Lucía Colodro-Conde, Baptiste Couvy-Duchesne, Nick Craddock, Gregory E. Crawford, Gail Davies, Franziska Degenhardt, Eske M. Derks, Nese Direk, Conor V. Dolan, Erin C. Dunn, Thalia C. Eley, Valentina Escott-Price, Farnush Farhadi Hassan Kiadeh, Hilary K. Finucane, Jerome C. Foo, Andreas J. Forstner, Josef Frank, Héléna A. Gaspar, Michael Gill, Fernando S. Goes, Scott D. Gordon, Shantel Marie Weinsheimer, Jürgen Wellmann, Gonneke Willemsen, Stephanie H. Witt, Yang Wu, Hualin S. Xi, Jian Yang, Futao Zhang, Volker Arolt, Bernhard T. Baune, Klaus Berger, Dorret I. Boomsma, Sven Cichon, Udo Dannlowski, E.J.C. de Geus, J. Raymond Depaulo, Enrico Domenici, Katharina Domschke, Tõnu Esko, Hans J. Grabe, Steven P. Hamilton, Jakob Grove, Lynsey S. Hall, Christine Søholm Hansen, Thomas F. Hansen, Stefan Herms, Ian B. Hickie, Per Hoffmann, Georg Homuth, Carsten Horn, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, David M. Hougaard, David M. Howard, Marcus Ising, Rick Jansen, Ian Jones, Lisa A. Jones, Eric Jorgenson, James A. Knowles, Isaac S. Kohane, Julia Kraft, Warren W. Kretzschmar, Zoltán Kutalik, Yihan Li, Penelope A. Lind, Donald J. MacIntyre, Dean F. MacKinnon, Robert M. Maier, Wolfgang Maier, Jonathan Marchini, Hamdi Mbarek, Patrick McGrath, Peter McGuffin, Sarah E. Medland, Divya Mehta, Christel M. Middeldorp, Evelin Mihailov, Yuri Milaneschi, Lili Milani, Francis M. Mondimore, Grant W. Montgomery, Sara Mostafavi, Niamh Mullins, Matthias Nauck, Bernard Ng, Michel G. Nivard, Dale R. Nyholt, Paul F. O'Reilly, Hogni Oskarsson, Caroline Hayward, Andrew C. Heath, Kenneth S. Kendler, Stefan Kloiber, Glyn Lewis, Qingqin S. Li, Susanne Lucae, Pamela A.F. Madden, Patrik K. Magnusson, Nicholas G. Martin, Andrew M. McIntosh, Andres Metspalu, Ole Mors, Preben Bo Mortensen, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Merete Nordentoft, Markus M. Nöthen, Michael C. O'Donovan, Sara A. Paciga, Nancy L. Pedersen, Michael J. Owen, Jodie N. Painter, Carsten Bøcker Pedersen, Marianne Giørtz Pedersen, Roseann E. Peterson, Wouter J. Peyrot, Giorgio Pistis, Danielle Posthuma, Jorge A. Quiroz, Per Qvist, John P. Rice, Brien P. Riley, Margarita Rivera, Saira Saeed Mirza, Robert Schoevers, Eva C. Schulte, Ling Shen, Jianxin Shi, Stanley I. Shyn, Engilbert Sigurdsson, Grant C.B. Sinnamon, Johannes H. Smit, Daniel J. Smith, Hreinn Stefansson, Stacy Steinberg, Fabian Streit, Jana Strohmaier, Katherine E. Tansey, Henning Teismann, Alexander Teumer, Wesley Thompson, Pippa A. Thomson, Thorgeir E. Thorgeirsson, Matthew Traylor, Jens Treutlein, Vassily Trubetskoy, André G. Uitterlinden, Daniel Umbricht, Sandra Van der Auwera, Albert M. van Hemert, Alexander Viktorin, Peter M. Visscher, Yunpeng Wang, Bradley T. Webb, Brenda W.J.H. Penninx, Roy H. Perlis, David J. Porteous, James B. Potash, Martin Preisig, Marcella Rietschel, Catherine Schaefer, Thomas G. Schulze, Jordan W. Smoller, Kari Stefansson, Henning Tiemeier, Rudolf Uher, Henry Völzke, Myrna M. Weissman, Thomas Werge, Cathryn M. Lewis, Douglas F. Levinson, Gerome Breen, Anders D. Børglum, Patrick F. Sullivan

Source Citation

Source Citation   

Gale Document Number: GALE|A687790919