OBJECTIVE -- The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and risk factors for the development of GDM in pregnant women in Tianjin, China, where the prevalence of GDM is still unknown.
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS -- A total of 9,471 pregnant women living in the six urban districts of Tianjin, China, took part in the initial screening between December 1998 and December 1999. The screening test consisted of a 50-g 1-h glucose test. Women with a reading [greater than or equal to]7.8 mmol/l at the initial screening were invited to undergo a 75-g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). GDM was confirmed using the World Health Organization's diagnostic criteria.
RESULTS -- At the initial screening test, 888 women had a glucose reading of [greater than or equal to]7.8 mmol/l. A total of 701 (79%) women took a subsequent OGTT. Of these, 174 women were confirmed to have GDM (154 with impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] and 20 with diabetes). The prevalence of GDM was 2.31% (2.03% for IGT and 0.28% for diabetes), adjusting for serum glucose levels at the initial screening test. Independent predictors for GDM were maternal age, stature, prepregnancy BMI, weight gain in pregnancy before screening, diabetes in first-degree relatives, and habitual cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Women who smoked or had a short stature are more likely to develop GDM than their counterparts.
CONCLUSIONS -- The prevalence of GDM in pregnant women in the city of Tianjin, China, was 2.31%. Short stature and smoking in pregnancy were additional risk factors for GDM.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases the risk of perinatal morbidity (1-3). Women with prior GDM are also at a higher risk of type 2 diabetes later in life (4,5). The prevalence of GDM in ethnic women in the Western world has been shown to be higher than in women of their host populations (6-10). Separate studies of donor nations, however, showed a much lower prevalence of GDM than those of Western populations. The prevalence of known diabetes and GDM in an Indian population was reported to be 1.19 and 0.56%, respectively (11). Studies on the prevalence of GDM in Chinese women living in China are few and usually not readily accessible in Western literature (12,13). The risk factors for GDM have not been systematically researched in China. This article aims to examine the prevalence of GDM and its risk factors in urban districts of Tianjin city as part of the Tianjin Study of Diabetes in Pregnancy (TSDP).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -- The TSDP is a prospective population-based study. A total of 9,471 pregnant women living in the six urban districts of Tianjin, China, took part in the GDM screening program between December 1998 and December 1999. Screening was carried out at 26-30 gestational weeks, during which women were under the care of antenatal basic care units (ABCUs). Venous blood was taken 60 min after the ingestion of 200 ml of 25% glucose solution. Women who had a glucose...