It's giving me the blues: A fixed-effects and g-formula approach to understanding job insecurity, sleep disturbances, and major depression.

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From: Social Science & Medicine(Vol. 297)
Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishers
Document Type: Report
Length: 398 words

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Abstract :

Keywords Job insecurity; Sleep disturbances; Major depression; Causal mediation Highlights * Sleep disturbances may mediate the job insecurity and major depression (MD) relationship. * Causal methodological triangulation, adjusts for unobserved and intermediate confounding. * Fixed-effects results: Sleep disturbances may mediate job insecurity and MD relationship. * G-formula results: Causal link is mostly direct, partly indirect with high degree of uncertainty. * Hypothetically intervening on job insecurity reduces MD by about 10% at the population level. Abstract Research suggests that work-related factors like job insecurity increases the risk of major depression (MD), although it is unclear whether the association is causal. Research further suggests that job insecurity increases sleep disturbances, which is also a risk factor for MD. Based on current knowledge, it is possible that job insecurity operates through sleep disturbances to affect MD, but this pathway has not been examined in the literature. The current study extends the literature by using two complementary, counterfactual approaches (i.e., random- and fixed-effects regression and a mediational g-formula) to examine whether job insecurity causes MD and whether sleep disturbances mediate the relationship. A methodological triangulation approach allowed us to adjust for unobserved and intermediate confounding, which has not been addressed in prior research. Findings suggest that the relationship between job insecurity and MD is primarily direct, that hypothetically intervening on job insecurity (in our g-formula) would reduce MD by approximately 10% at the population level, and this relationship operates via sleep disturbances to some degree. However, the indirect pathway had a high degree of uncertainty. Author Affiliation: (a) Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Sweden (b) Groningen Research Institute of Pharmacy, Netherlands (c) Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany (d) Department of Statistics, Stockholm University, Sweden * Corresponding author. Article History: Received 3 October 2021; Revised 7 February 2022; Accepted 10 February 2022 (footnote)[white star] This study was funded by Nordforsk (#75021). SLOSH data collection and management has also been supported by the Swedish Research Council, and the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (# 2019-01321) partly through Stockholm Stress Center of Excellence. Please direct questions to Robin S. Högnäs, robin.hognas@su.se, Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Sweden. The authors would like to thank Ben Wilson for valuable advice during the early stages of this project. Byline: Robin S. Högnäs [robin.hognas@su.se] (a,*), Maarten J. Bijlsma (b,c), Ulf Högnäs (d), Sandra Blomqvist (a), Hugo Westerlund (a), Linda Magnusson Hanson (a)

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A696649688