Classical Human Leukocyte Antigen Alleles and C4 Haplotypes Are Not Significantly Associated With Depression.

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From: Biological Psychiatry(Vol. 87, Issue 5)
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Document Type: Report
Length: 4,639 words

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Keywords Autoimmune disorder; Complement; Genetic association; Human leukocyte antigen; Major depressive disorder; Major histocompatibility complex Abstract Background The prevalence of depression is higher in individuals with autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the observed comorbidities are unknown. Shared genetic etiology is a plausible explanation for the overlap, and in this study we tested whether genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is associated with risk for autoimmune diseases, is also associated with risk for depression. Methods We fine-mapped the classical MHC (chr6: 29.6--33.1 Mb), imputing 216 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and 4 complement component 4 (C4) haplotypes in studies from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Major Depressive Disorder Working Group and the UK Biobank. The total sample size was 45,149 depression cases and 86,698 controls. We tested for association between depression status and imputed MHC variants, applying both a region-wide significance threshold (3.9 x 10.sup.-6) and a candidate threshold (1.6 x 10.sup.-4). Results No HLA alleles or C4 haplotypes were associated with depression at the region-wide threshold. HLA-B*08:01 was associated with modest protection for depression at the candidate threshold for testing in HLA genes in the meta-analysis (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97--0.99). Conclusions We found no evidence that an increased risk for depression was conferred by HLA alleles, which play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, or C4 haplotypes, which are strongly associated with schizophrenia. These results suggest that any HLA or C4 variants associated with depression either are rare or have very modest effect sizes. Author Affiliation: (1) Social Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom (2) National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre South London and Maudsley National Health Service Trust, King's College London, London, United Kingdom (3) Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King's College London, London, United Kingdom (4) Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, United Kingdom (5) Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom (6) Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom (7) Medical Research Council Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom (8) Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Worcester, Worcester, United Kingdom (9) University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom (10) Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai, New York, New York (11) Division of Epidemiology, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York (12) Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York (13) Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (14) Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (15) Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (16) Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (17) Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts (18) Department of Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts (19) Department of Psychiatry, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, San Francisco, California (20) Psychiatry and the Behavioral Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (21) Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California (22) Psychiatry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (23) Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (24) Behavioral Health Services, Kaiser Permanente Washington, Seattle, Washington (25) Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (26) Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (27) Discipline of Psychiatry, Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia (28) Department of Psychiatry, Melbourne Medical School, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (29) Florey Institute for Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (30) Genetics and Computational Biology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (31) Department of Translational Research in Psychiatry, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Münster, Germany (32) Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy), Münster, Germany (33) Department of Psychiatry, University of Münster, Münster, Germany (34) Department of Psychiatry, University of Münster, Münster, Germany (35) Institute of Human Genetics, School of Medicine and University Hospital Bonn, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany (36) Centre for Human Genetics, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany (37) Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany (38) Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany (39) Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Universitätsmedizin Berlin Campus Charité Mitte, Berlin, Germany (40) Department of Genetic Epidemiology in Psychiatry, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany (41) Department of Biological Psychology and EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (42) Amsterdam Public Health Institute, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (43) Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam Universiteit Medical Center, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (44) Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (45) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (46) Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (47) NIDO | Danmark, Regional Hospital West Jutland, Herning, Denmark (48) iPSYCH, The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, Denmark (49) Psychosis Research Unit, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov, Aarhus, Denmark (50) Department of Psychiatry, Dokuz Eylul University School Of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey (51) Department of Psychiatry, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland (52) Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland (53) Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland (54) Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland (55) Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital of Lausanne, Prilly, Switzerland (56) Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden (57) Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (58) Department of Statistics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (59) Department of Psychiatry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada * Address correspondence to Kylie P. Glanville, M.Sc., Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre; Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience; King's College London, de Crespigny Park, London, United Kingdom. Article History: Received 19 November 2018; Revised 26 June 2019; Accepted 27 June 2019 (footnote) Major Depressive Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium: (footnote) Naomi R. Wray1,2, Stephan Ripke3,4,5, Manuel Mattheisen6,7,8, Maciej Trzaskowski1, Enda M. Byrne1, Abdel Abdellaoui9, Mark J. Adams10, Esben Agerbo11,12,13, Tracy M. Air14, Till F.M. Andlauer15,16, Silviu-Alin Bacanu17, Marie Bækvad-Hansen13,18, Aartjan T.F. Beekman19, Tim B. Bigdeli17,20, Elisabeth B. Binder15,21, Julien Bryois22, Henriette N. Buttenschøn13,23,24, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm13,18, Na Cai25,26, Enrique Castelao27, Jane Hvarregaard Christensen8,13,24, Toni-Kim Clarke10, Jonathan R.I. Coleman28, Lucía Colodro-Conde29, Baptiste Couvy-Duchesne2,30, Nick Craddock31, Gregory E. Crawford32,33, Gail Davies34, Ian J. Deary34, Franziska Degenhardt35, Eske M. Derks29, Nese Direk36,37, Conor V. Dolan9, Erin C. Dunn38,39,40, Thalia C. Eley28, Valentina Escott-Price41, Farnush Farhadi Hassan Kiadeh42, Hilary K. Finucane43,44, Jerome C. Foo45, Andreas J. Forstner35,46,47,48, Josef Frank45, Héléna A. Gaspar28, Michael Gill49, Fernando S. Goes50, Scott D. Gordon29, Jakob Grove8,13,24,51, Lynsey S. Hall10,52, Christine Søholm Hansen13,18, Thomas F. Hansen53,54,55, Stefan Herms35,47, Ian B. Hickie56, Per Hoffmann35,47, Georg Homuth57, Carsten Horn58, Jouke-Jan Hottenga9, David M. Hougaard13,18, David M. Howard10,28, Marcus Ising59, Rick Jansen19, Ian Jones60, Lisa A. Jones61, Eric Jorgenson62, James A. Knowles63, Isaac S. Kohane64,65,66, Julia Kraft4, Warren W. Kretzschmar67, Zoltán Kutalik68,69, Yihan Li67, Penelope A. Lind29, Donald J. MacIntyre70,71, Dean F. MacKinnon50, Robert M. Maier2, Wolfgang Maier72, Jonathan Marchini73, Hamdi Mbarek9, Patrick McGrath74, Peter McGuffin28, Sarah E. Medland29, Divya Mehta2,75, Christel M. Middeldorp9,76,77, Evelin Mihailov78, Yuri Milaneschi19, Lili Milani78, Francis M. Mondimore50, Grant W. Montgomery1, Sara Mostafavi79,80, Niamh Mullins28, Matthias Nauck81,82, Bernard Ng80, Michel G. Nivard9, Dale R. Nyholt83, Paul F. O'Reilly28, Hogni Oskarsson84, Michael J. Owen60, Jodie N. Painter29, Carsten Bøcker Pedersen11,12,13, Marianne Giørtz Pedersen11,12,13, Roseann E. Peterson17,85, Erik Pettersson22, Wouter J. Peyrot19, Giorgio Pistis27, Danielle Posthuma86,87, Jorge A. Quiroz88, Per Qvist8,13,24, John P. Rice89, Brien P. Riley17, Margarita Rivera28,90, Saira Saeed Mirza36, Robert Schoevers91, Eva C. Schulte92,93, Ling Shen62, Jianxin Shi94, Stanley I. Shyn95, Engilbert Sigurdsson96, Grant C. B. Sinnamon97, Johannes H. Smit19, Daniel J. Smith98, Hreinn Stefansson99, Stacy Steinberg99, Fabian Streit45, Jana Strohmaier45, Katherine E. Tansey100, Henning Teismann101, Alexander Teumer102, Wesley Thompson13,54,103,104, Pippa A. Thomson105, Thorgeir E. Thorgeirsson99, Matthew Traylor106, Jens Treutlein45, Vassily Trubetskoy4, Andrés G. Uitterlinden107, Daniel Umbricht108, Sandra Van der Auwera109, Albert M. van Hemert110, Alexander Viktorin22, Peter M. Visscher1,2, Yunpeng Wang13,54,104, Bradley T. Webb111, Shantel Marie Weinsheimer13,54, Jürgen Wellmann101, Gonneke Willemsen9, Stephanie H. Witt45, Yang Wu1, Hualin S. Xi112, Jian Yang2,113, Futao Zhang1, Volker Arolt114, Bernhard T. Baune115,116,117, Klaus Berger101, Dorret I. Boomsma9, Sven Cichon35,47,118,119, Udo Dannlowski114, EJC. de Geus9,120, J. Raymond DePaulo50, Enrico Domenici121, Katharina Domschke122,123, Tõnu Esko5,78, Hans J. Grabe109, Steven P. Hamilton124, Caroline Hayward125, Andrew C. Heath89, Kenneth S. Kendler17, Stefan Kloiber59,126,127, Glyn Lewis128, Qingqin S. Li129, Susanne Lucae59, Pamela AF. Madden89, Patrik K. Magnusson22, Nicholas G. Martin29, Andrew M. McIntosh10,34, Andres Metspalu78,130, Ole Mors13,131, Preben Bo Mortensen11,12,13,24, Bertram Müller-Myhsok15,132,133, Merete Nordentoft13,134, Markus M. Nöthen35, Michael C. O'Donovan60, Sara A. Paciga135, Nancy L. Pedersen22, Brenda W.J.H. Penninx19, Roy H. Perlis38,136, David J. Porteous105, James B. Potash137, Martin Preisig27, Marcella Rietschel45, Catherine Schaefer62, Thomas G. Schulze45,93,138,139,140, Jordan W. Smoller38,39,40, Kari Stefansson99,141, Henning Tiemeier36,142,143, Rudolf Uher144, Henry Völzke102, Myrna M. Weissman74,145, Thomas Werge13,54,146, Cathryn M. Lewis28,147, Douglas F. Levinson148, Gerome Breen28,149, Anders D. Børglum8,13,24, Patrick F. Sullivan22,150,151 (footnote)1 Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (footnote)2 Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (footnote)3 Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (footnote)4 Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Universitätsmedizin Berlin Campus Charité Mitte, Berlin, Germany (footnote)5 Department of Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts (footnote)6 Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany (footnote)7 Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden (footnote)8 Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark (footnote)9 Deptartment of Biological Psychology and EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (footnote)10 Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom (footnote)11 Centre for Integrated Register-based Research, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark (footnote)12 National Centre for Register-Based Research, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark (footnote)13 iPSYCH, The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, Aarhus, Denmark (footnote)14 Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia (footnote)15 Department of Translational Research in Psychiatry, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany (footnote)16 Department of Neurology, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany (footnote)17 Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (footnote)18 Center for Neonatal Screening, Department for Congenital Disorders, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark (footnote)19 Department of Psychiatry, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center and GGZ inGeest, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (footnote)20 Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavior Genetics, Richmond, Virginia (footnote)21 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (footnote)22 Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden (footnote)23 Department of Clinical Medicine, Translational Neuropsychiatry Unit, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark (footnote)24 iSEQ, Centre for Integrative Sequencing, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark (footnote)25 Department of Human Genetics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge, United Kingdom (footnote)26 Department of Statistical Genomics and Systems Genetics, European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), Cambridge, United Kingdom (footnote)27 Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital of Lausanne, Prilly, Switzerland (footnote)28 Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, King's College London, London, United Kingdom (footnote)29 Department of Genetics and Computational Biology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (footnote)30 Centre for Advanced Imaging, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (footnote)31 Department of Psychological Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom (footnote)32 Center for Genomic and Computational Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (footnote)33 Department of Pediatrics, Division of Medical Genetics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (footnote)34 Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom (footnote)35 Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, School of Medicine & University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany (footnote)36 Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Zuid-Holland, The Netherlands (footnote)37 Department of Psychiatry, Dokuz Eylul University School Of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey (footnote)38 Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (footnote)39 Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit (PNGU), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (footnote)40 Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts (footnote)41 Department of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom (footnote)42 Bioinformatics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (footnote)43 Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (footnote)44 Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (footnote)45 Department of Genetic Epidemiology in Psychiatry, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany (footnote)46 Department of Psychiatry (UPK), University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland (footnote)47 Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland (footnote)48 Centre for Human Genetics, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany (footnote)49 Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland (footnote)50 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (footnote)51 Bioinformatics Research Centre, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark (footnote)52 Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom (footnote)53 Danish Headache Centre, Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, Denmark (footnote)54 Institute of Biological Psychiatry, Mental Health Center Sct. Hans, Mental Health Services Capital Region of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark (footnote)55 iPSYCH, The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Psychiatric Research, Copenhagen, Denmark (footnote)56 Brain and Mind Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (footnote)57 Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, Department of Functional Genomics, University Medicine and Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany (footnote)58 Roche Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Roche Innovation Center Basel, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland (footnote)59 Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany (footnote)60 MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom (footnote)61 Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Worcester, Worcester, United Kingdom (footnote)62 Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California (footnote)63 Department of Psychiatry and the Behavioral Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (footnote)64 Department of Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massahusetts (footnote)65 Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (footnote)66 Informatics Program, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (footnote)67 Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom (footnote)68 Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland (footnote)69 Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland (footnote)70 Division of Psychiatry, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom (footnote)71 Department of Mental Health, National Health Service, Glasgow, United Kingdom (footnote)72 Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany (footnote)73 Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom (footnote)74 Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York (footnote)75 School of Psychology and Counseling, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (footnote)76 Child and Youth Mental Health Service, Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service, South Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (footnote)77 Child Health Research Centre, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (footnote)78 Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia (footnote)79 Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (footnote)80 Department of Statistics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (footnote)81 DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Greifswald, University Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany (footnote)82 Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany (footnote)83 Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (footnote)84 Humus, Reykjavik, Iceland (footnote)85 Virginia Institute for Psychiatric & Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (footnote)86 Clinical Genetics, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (footnote)87 Complex Trait Genetics, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (footnote)88 Solid Biosciences, Boston, Massachusetts (footnote)89 Department of Psychiatry, Washington University in Saint Louis School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (footnote)90 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, Institute of Neurosciences, Biomedical Research Centre (CIBM), University of Granada, Granada, Spain (footnote)91 Department of Psychiatry, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands (footnote)92 Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Munich, Germany (footnote)93 Institute of Psychiatric Phenomics and Genomics (IPPG), University Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Munich, Germany (footnote)94 Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (footnote)95 Behavioral Health Services, Kaiser Permanente Washington, Seattle, Washington (footnote)96 Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland (footnote)97 School of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia (footnote)98 Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom (footnote)99 deCODE Genetics/Amgen, Reykjavik, Iceland (footnote)100 College of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom (footnote)101 Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University of Münster, Münster, Germany (footnote)102 Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany (footnote)103 Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California (footnote)104 KG Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Norway Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway (footnote)105 Medical Genetics Section, CGEM, IGMM, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom (footnote)106 Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom (footnote)107 Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Zuid-Holland, The Netherlands (footnote)108 Roche Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development, Neuroscience, Ophthalmology and Rare Diseases Discovery & Translational Medicine Area, Roche Innovation Center Basel, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland (footnote)109 Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany (footnote)110 Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands (footnote)111 Virginia Institute for Psychiatric & Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (footnote)112 Computational Sciences Center of Emphasis, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Cambridge, Massachusetts (footnote)113 Institute for Molecular Bioscience, Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (footnote)114 Department of Psychiatry, University of Münster, Münster, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany (footnote)115 Department of Psychiatry, University of Münster, Münster, Germany (footnote)116 Department of Psychiatry, Melbourne Medical School, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (footnote)117 Florey Institute for Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (footnote)118 Institute of Medical Genetics and Pathology, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland (footnote)119 Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-1), Research Center Juelich, Juelich, Germany (footnote)120 Amsterdam Public Health Institute, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (footnote)121 Centre for Integrative Biology, Università degli Studi di Trento, Trento, Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy (footnote)122 Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center--University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany (footnote)123 Center for NeuroModulation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany (footnote)124 Department of Psychiatry, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, San Francisco, California (footnote)125 Medical Research Council Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom (footnote)126 Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (footnote)127 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (footnote)128 Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, United Kingdom (footnote)129 Neuroscience Therapeutic Area, Janssen Research and Development, LLC, Titusville, New Jersey (footnote)130 Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia (footnote)131 Psychosis Research Unit, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov, Aarhus, Denmark (footnote)132 Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy), Munich, Germany (footnote)133 University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom (footnote)134 Mental Health Center Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark (footnote)135 Human Genetics and Computational Biomedicine, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, Connecticut (footnote)136 Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (footnote)137 Psychiatry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (footnote)138 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (footnote)139 Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Niedersachsen, Germany (footnote)140 Human Genetics Branch, NIMH Division of Intramural Research Programs, Bethesda, Maryland (footnote)141 Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland (footnote)142 Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Zuid-Holland, The Netherlands (footnote)143 Psychiatry, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Zuid-Holland, The Netherlands (footnote)144 Psychiatry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada (footnote)145 Division of Epidemiology, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York (footnote)146 Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark (footnote)147 Department of Medical & Molecular Genetics, King's College London, London, United Kingdom (footnote)148 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California (footnote)149 NIHR Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre, King's College London, London, United Kingdom (footnote)150 Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (footnote)151 Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina Byline: Kylie P. Glanville [kylie.glanville@kcl.ac.uk] (1,*), Jonathan R.I. Coleman (1,2), Ken B. Hanscombe (3), Jack Euesden (1), Shing Wan Choi (1,10), Kirstin L. Purves (1), Gerome Breen (1,2), Tracy M. Air (27), Till F.M. Andlauer (31,32), Bernhard T. Baune (28,29,33), Elisabeth B. Binder (13,31), Douglas H.R. Blackwood (5), Dorret I. Boomsma (41), Henriette N. Buttenschøn (47,48), Lucía Colodro-Conde (30), Udo Dannlowski (34), Nese Direk (44,50), Erin C. Dunn (14,15,17), Andreas J. Forstner (35,36,51,52), Eco J.C. de Geus (41,42), Hans J. Grabe (37), Steven P. Hamilton (19), Ian Jones (7), Lisa A. Jones (8), James A. Knowles (20), Zoltán Kutalik (53,54), Douglas F. Levinson (21), Glyn Lewis (4), Penelope A. Lind (30), Susanne Lucae (38), Patrik K. Magnusson (56), Peter McGuffin (1), Andrew M. McIntosh (5,6), Yuri Milaneschi (43), Ole Mors (48,49), Sara Mostafavi (57,58), Bertram Müller-Myhsok (9,31,32), Nancy L. Pedersen (56), Brenda W.J.H. Penninx (43), James B. Potash (22), Martin Preisig (55), Stephan Ripke (16,18,39), Jianxin Shi (23), Stanley I. Shyn (24), Jordan W. Smoller (14,15,17), Fabian Streit (40), Patrick F. Sullivan (25,26,56), Henning Tiemeier (44,45,46), Rudolf Uher (59), Sandra Van der Auwera (37), Myrna M. Weissman (11,12), Naomi R. Wray, Stephan Ripke, Manuel Mattheisen, Maciej Trzaskowski, Enda M. Byrne, Abdel Abdellaoui, Mark J. Adams, Esben Agerbo, Tracy M. Air, Till F.M. Andlauer, Silviu-Alin Bacanu, Marie Bækvad-Hansen, Aartjan T.F. Beekman, Tim B. Bigdeli, Elisabeth B. Binder, Julien Bryois, Henriette N. Buttenschøn, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm, Na Cai, Enrique Castelao, Jane Hvarregaard Christensen, Toni-Kim Clarke, Jonathan R.I. Coleman, Lucía Colodro-Conde, Baptiste Couvy-Duchesne, Nick Craddock, Gregory E. Crawford, Gail Davies, Ian J. Deary, Franziska Degenhardt, Eske M. Derks, Nese Direk, Conor V. Dolan, Erin C. Dunn, Thalia C. Eley, Valentina Escott-Price, Farnush Farhadi Hassan Kiadeh, Hilary K. Finucane, Jerome C. Foo, Andreas J. Forstner, Josef Frank, Héléna A. Gaspar, Michael Gill, Fernando S. Goes, Scott D. Gordon, Jakob Grove, Lynsey S. Hall, Christine Søholm Hansen, Thomas F. Hansen, Stefan Herms, Ian B. Hickie, Per Hoffmann, Georg Homuth, Carsten Horn, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, David M. Hougaard, David M. Howard, Marcus Ising, Rick Jansen, Ian Jones, Lisa A. Jones, Eric Jorgenson, James A. Knowles, Isaac S. Kohane, Julia Kraft, Warren W. Kretzschmar, Zoltán Kutalik, Yihan Li, Penelope A. Lind, Donald J. MacIntyre, Dean F. MacKinnon, Robert M. Maier, Wolfgang Maier, Jonathan Marchini, Hamdi Mbarek, Patrick McGrath, Peter McGuffin, Sarah E. Medland, Divya Mehta, Christel M. Middeldorp, Evelin Mihailov, Yuri Milaneschi, Lili Milani, Francis M. Mondimore, Grant W. Montgomery, Sara Mostafavi, Niamh Mullins, Matthias Nauck, Bernard Ng, Michel G. Nivard, Dale R. Nyholt, Paul F. O'Reilly, Hogni Oskarsson, Michael J. Owen, Jodie N. Painter, Carsten Bøcker Pedersen, Marianne Giørtz Pedersen, Roseann E. Peterson, Erik Pettersson, Wouter J. Peyrot, Giorgio Pistis, Danielle Posthuma, Jorge A. Quiroz, Per Qvist, John P. Rice, Brien P. Riley, Margarita Rivera, Saira Saeed Mirza, Robert Schoevers, Eva C. Schulte, Ling Shen, Jianxin Shi, Stanley I. Shyn, Engilbert Sigurdsson, Grant C.B. Sinnamon, Johannes H. Smit, Daniel J. Smith, Hreinn Stefansson, Stacy Steinberg, Fabian Streit, Jana Strohmaier, Katherine E. Tansey, Henning Teismann, Alexander Teumer, Wesley Thompson, Pippa A. Thomson, Thorgeir E. Thorgeirsson, Matthew Traylor, Jens Treutlein, Vassily Trubetskoy, Andrés G. Uitterlinden, Daniel Umbricht, Sandra Van der Auwera, Albert M. van Hemert, Alexander Viktorin, Peter M. Visscher, Yunpeng Wang, Bradley T. Webb, Shantel Marie Weinsheimer, Jürgen Wellmann, Gonneke Willemsen, Stephanie H. Witt, Yang Wu, Hualin S. Xi, Jian Yang, Futao Zhang, Volker Arolt, Bernhard T. Baune, Klaus Berger, Dorret I. Boomsma, Sven Cichon, Udo Dannlowski, EJC. de Geus, J. Raymond DePaulo, Enrico Domenici, Katharina Domschke, Tõnu Esko, Hans J. Grabe, Steven P. Hamilton, Caroline Hayward, Andrew C. Heath, Kenneth S. Kendler, Stefan Kloiber, Glyn Lewis, Qingqin S. Li, Susanne Lucae, Pamela AF. Madden, Patrik K. Magnusson, Nicholas G. Martin, Andrew M. McIntosh, Andres Metspalu, Ole Mors, Preben Bo Mortensen, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Merete Nordentoft, Markus M. Nöthen, Michael C. O'Donovan, Sara A. Paciga, Nancy L. Pedersen, Brenda W.J.H. Penninx, Roy H. Perlis, David J. Porteous, James B. Potash, Martin Preisig, Marcella Rietschel, Catherine Schaefer, Thomas G. Schulze, Jordan W. Smoller, Kari Stefansson, Henning Tiemeier, Rudolf Uher, Henry Völzke, Myrna M. Weissman, Thomas Werge, Cathryn M. Lewis, Douglas F. Levinson, Gerome Breen, Anders D. Børglum, Patrick F. Sullivan

Source Citation

Source Citation   

Gale Document Number: GALE|A613045964