In this study, a bioinformatics analysis is conducted to screen differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Based on this information, we explored the possible roles of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of LSCC. The RNA-Seq data from 79 laryngeal cancer samples in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database were sorted. Differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs in LSCC are screened using the PERL programming language, and it was analysed by Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). The miRNA-mRNA regulatory network of LSCC is constructed using Cytoscape software. Then, quantitative real-time PCR (QRT- PCR), Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) and flow cytometry analysis we are used to further validate key miRNAs. We identified 99 differentially expressed miRNAs and 2,758 differentially expressed mRNAs in LSCC tissues from the GEO database. Four more important miRNAs displaying a high degree of connectivity are selected, these results suggest that they play an important role in the pathogenesis of LSCC. As shown in the present study, we identified specific miRNA-mRNA networks associated with the occurrence and development of LSCC through bioinformatics analysis. We found a miRNA molecule closely related to LSCC based on miRNA-mRNA network: miR-140-3p was down-regulated in LSCC. In addition, the potential antitumor effect of miR-140-3p in LSCC was verified in the experiment, and it was proved that overexpression of miR-140-3p could inhibit the proliferation of LSCC cells and promote cell apoptosis, suggesting that miR-140-3p may be a potential tumor marker in LSCC.