To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2008.01.034 Byline: Edward Shiu (a), Louise M. Hassan (b), Gianfranco Walsh (c) Keywords: Governmental demarketing; Anti-smoking; Attitude; Longitudinal Abstract: Governments in many developed countries are increasing their efforts to reduce smoking. In line with their commitment for action, governments use anti-smoking advertising to highlight the health risks of smoking and regulatory measures to dissuade consumers from consuming tobacco. In the past, governments tended to take these steps in isolation, now they are more likely to combine these strategies as part of a demarketing mix. However, relatively little is known about the differential impact of these demarketing mix elements in relation to consumers' intention to quit smoking and other important outcome variables. This article presents a conceptual model linking the 4Ps in a demarketing context with three outcome measures: consumers' attitude toward the tobacco industry, consumers' attitude toward smoking, and consumers' intention to quit smoking. The authors use empirical longitudinal data to test the model and the results suggest that the four demarketing mix elements affect smokers' attitudes toward the tobacco industry and smoking, as well as their intention to quit over time. Further, the results from structural equation modeling analysis indicate that not all four demarketing mix elements are equally effective in inducing consumer behavior change. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Marketing, University of Strathclyde, 173 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RQ, United Kingdom (b) School of Management, University of St Andrews, The Gateway, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS, United Kingdom (c) Institute for Management, University of Koblenz-Landau, Universitatsstrasse 1, 56070 Koblenz, Germany Article History: Received 1 June 2007; Revised 1 November 2007; Accepted 1 January 2008 Article Note: (footnote) [star] This research is part of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project. Louise Hassan is funded by Cancer Research UK. This research was funded by grants from the U.S. National Cancer Institute/NIH (from the Roswell Park Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Center (TTURC), P50 CA111236, and from R01 CA100362), the Canadian Institutes for Health Research (#57897), Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (#045734), the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (#265903), Cancer Research UK (#C312/A3726), the Australian Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing, the Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation of the National Cancer Institute of Canada/Canadian Cancer Society, the Canadian Tobacco Control Research Initiative.