Characterizing neuroanatomic heterogeneity in people with and without ADHD based on subcortical brain volumes.

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Publisher: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc.
Document Type: Report
Length: 749 words

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Keywords: ADHD; subcortical volume; neuroanatomic heterogeneity; community detection; effect sizes Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder. Neuroanatomic heterogeneity limits our understanding of ADHD's etiology. This study aimed to parse heterogeneity of ADHD and to determine whether patient subgroups could be discerned based on subcortical brain volumes. Methods Using the large ENIGMA-ADHD Working Group dataset, four subsamples of 993 boys with and without ADHD and to subsamples of 653 adult men, 400 girls, and 447 women were included in analyses. We applied exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to seven subcortical volumes in order to constrain the complexity of the input variables and ensure more stable clustering results. Factor scores derived from the EFA were used to build networks. A community detection (CD) algorithm clustered participants into subgroups based on the networks. Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors (basal ganglia, limbic system, and thalamus) in boys and men with and without ADHD. Factor structures for girls and women differed from those in males. Given sample size considerations, we concentrated subsequent analyses on males. Male participants could be separated into four communities, of which one was absent in healthy men. Significant case-control differences of subcortical volumes were observed within communities in boys, often with stronger effect sizes compared to the entire sample. As in the entire sample, none were observed in men. Affected men in two of the communities presented comorbidities more frequently than those in other communities. There were no significant differences in ADHD symptom severity, IQ, and medication use between communities in either boys or men. Conclusions Our results indicate that neuroanatomic heterogeneity in subcortical volumes exists, irrespective of ADHD diagnosis. Effect sizes of case-control differences appear more pronounced at least in some of the subgroups. Article Note: These authors are joint first authors. These authors contributed equally to this work. Members from the ENIGMA-ADHD Working Group are presented in Appendix 1. Conflict of interest statement: See Acknowledgments for full disclosures. CAPTION(S): Table S1. Additional information of methods in each participating site. Table S2. The distribution of boys (patients/controls) in each community. Table S3. The distribution of adult men (patients/controls) in each community. Table S4. Comparison of subcortical brain volumes of each community in subsample of boys. Table S5. Comparison of subcortical brain volumes of each community in subsample of adult men. Table S6. ADHD symptoms, IQ, comorbidities, and medication information in each cohort in boys with ADHD. Table S7. ADHD symptoms, IQ, comorbidities and mediation information in each cohort in adult men with ADHD. Figure S1. The three-factor model that was generated by EFA in girls with estimated factor loadings of the latent factors. Figure S2. The three-factor model that was generated by EFA in adult women with estimated factor loadings of the latent factors. Figure S3. Variation of Information in each subsample. Figure S4. Scree plot of EFA in each subsample. Byline: Ting Li, Daan Rooij, Nina Roth Mota, Jan K. Buitelaar,, Martine Hoogman, Alejandro Arias Vasquez, Barbara Franke, Sara Ambrosino, Tobias Banaschewski, Cibele E. Bandeira, Claiton H.D. Bau, Sarah Baumeister, Ramona Baur-Streubel, Mark A. Bellgrove, Joseph Biederman, Janita Bralten, Ivanei E. Bramati, Daniel Brandeis, Silvia Berm, Geraldo F. Busatto, Anna Calvo, Francisco X. Castellanos, Mara Cercignani, Kaylita C. Chantiluke, Anastasia Christakou, David Coghill, Annette Conzelmann, Ana I. Cubillo, Renata B. Cupertino, Parick Zeeuw, Sarah Durston, Eric A. Earl, Jeffery N. Epstein, Thomas Ethofer, Andreas J. Fallgatter, Damien A. Fair, Stephen V. Faraone, Thomas Frodl, Matt C. Gabel, Tinatin Gogberashvili, Eugenio H. Grevet, Jan Haavik, Neil A. Harrison, Catharina A. Hartman, Dirk J. Heslenfeld, Pieter J. Hoekstra, Marie F. Høvik, Neda Jahanshad, Bernd Kardatzki, Georgii Karkashadze, Clare Kelly, Gregor Kohls, Kerstin Konrad, Jonna Kuntsi, Luisa Lazaro, Sara Lera-Miguel, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Mario R. Louza, Astri J. Lundervold, Charles B. Malpas, Paulo Mattos, Hazel McCarthy, Rosa Nicolau, Joel T. Nigg, Ruth L. O'Gorman Tuura, Jaap Oosterlaan, Bob Oranje, Yannis Paloyelis, Paul Pauli, Felipe A. Picon, Kerstin J. Plessen, J. Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Andreas Reif, Liesbeth Reneman, Pedro G.P. Rosa, Katya Rubia, Anouk Schrantee, Lizanne J.S. Schweren, Jochen Seitz, Philip Shaw, Tim J. Silk, Norbert Skokauskas, Juan Carlos Soliva Vila, Anastasiia Soloveva, Michael C. Stevens, Gustavo Sudre, Leanne Tamm, Paul M. Thompson, Fernanda Tovar-Moll, Theo GM Erp, Alasdair Vance, Oscar Vilarroya, Yolanda Vives-Gilabert, Georg G. Polier, Susanne Walitza, Yuliya N. Yoncheva, Marcus V. Zanetti, Georg C. Ziegler, Anatoly Anikin, Philip Asherson, Alexandr Baranov, Tiffany Chaim-Avanicini, Anders M. Dale, Alysa E. Doyle, Terry Jernigan, Sarah Hohmann, Dmitry Kapilushniy, Mitul Mehta, Leyla Namazova-Baranova, Stephanie E. Novotny, Eileen Oberwelland Weiss, Lena Schwarz

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A673374337