Study of nitrogen fertilization times effects on new sunflower hybrids for grain and oil yields

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Date: June 2011
Publisher: American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information
Document Type: Report
Length: 5,169 words
Lexile Measure: 1550L

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Abstract :

To study of nitrogen fertilization times effects on grain and oil yields and growth stages, two new sunflower hybrids -Mehr & Azargol- as main plots and three nitrogen fertilization times: initial fertilization during steam formation stage (8 to 10 leaves), secondary fertilization in head formation stage (blooming), and the third stage-nitrogen fertilization- was done in efflorescence stage as sub plots were evaluated in a split plot design based on randomized complete block arrangement with 4 replications in Azad Islamic University of Saaveh in June, 2007. The results showed a significant difference (5%) between the treatments of fertilization times. During the steam formation the fertilization treatment showed the highest effect and during flowering it the lowest effect. A significant difference was observed between the treatments of fertilization's dates in thousand-seed weight, so that the highest thousand-seed weight is related to the fertilization treatment during steam formation, and the lowest is related to the thousand-seed weight fertilization treatment during flowering. A significant difference (5%) observed among the genotypes, and with a difference about 12 grams, Mehr genotype showed more thousand-seed weight. A significant difference was observed between the treatments of fertilization's dates in the number of seed in each head. The fertilization treatment during steam formation (679/67 seeds) had the most number of seed per head, and the fertilization treatment (495/45 seeds) per head had the least number. A significant difference (1%) has been observed between the treatments of fertilization's date in the number of full seed per head, in such a way that fertilization treatments during steam formation, with 573/66 filled seeds per head, was the superlative, and fertilization treatments during flowering, with 356/7 filled seeds per head, was the lowermost. And this difference reached to 39 percent. A significant difference (5%) has been observed between the numbers in terms of full seed per head. Azargol's figure (501/06 filled seeds) is higher than Mehr's (437.25 filled seeds). A significant difference(5%) was observed between the treatments of fertilization's date in terms of oil percentage, so that, in the stage of head and steam formation, fertilization time was catergorized in a statistic group while has the most percentage of oil; and in the stage of flowering, fertilization time was categorized in another statistic group of Dancan Multiple Range Test while has the least percentage of oil. A significant difference (1%) has been observed between the numbers; Azargol's figure (47/01%) has more percentage of oil than Mehr's figure (44/15%). There was also a significant difference (1%) between the times of planting with a view to the function of oil; fertilization time, in the stage of steam formation with 1871/20 Kg per hectare, had the most oil function, and fertilization time in the stage of flowering with 1136/77 Kg per hectare, had the least oil function. According to the results of the experiment, the best time for fertilization is the use of fertilizer in the stage of steam formation and then head formation. Using nitrogen fertilizer in time of steam formation, the fertilizer which is used during the formation of floret primordia is at plant's disposal and the maximum florets will be formed. This issue is as a result of the number of seed in head and also the number of full seed in more heads in the stage of steam formation. Meanwhile, the fertilization during steam formation may lead to availability of food resources and therefore suitable growth. Fertilization in the stage of steam formation leads to accretion of function, tousand-seed weight, the number of seed in head, the number of full seed in head, head's diameter, oil percentage, and function of oil. The above mentioned characteristics were in the lowest level when using nitrogen fertilizer in time of efflorescence. Generally speaking, in climate conditions of Saaveh, the stage of steam formation of Sunflower is the ideal time to fertilize. Key words: safflower, nitrogen, fertilization, hybrid variety, oil percentage, seed yield

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A263659455