Background: Considering the non-efficiency of small peasant system, agriculture and rural cooperatives will be useful means for agriculture development. Rural production cooperatives through increasing spirit of cooperation and participation among their members are cause of efficient use of production inputs. Objective: This research is done in year 2009 and it is descriptive and ex-post facto and survey the role of rural production cooperatives in rice production yield and reduce the damages caused by water shortage in rice fields of Guilan province. Questionnaire is the main tool for gathering information of this research and its statistical population includes Paddies who according to information of Agri-Jahad Organization of Guilan province in year 2009 were caught by water shortage for their rice farms. Number 250 of these paddies were chosen as statistical sample by using of the stratified sample method. 100 of these individuals were member in rural production cooperatives and 150 of them were nonmembers. In order to determine the role of cooperatives, the rice production yield in year 2008 (a year in which paddies had ensured water reservoir) for both mentioned sample groups compared to year 2009 (a year in which paddies were caught by drought and water shortage). Data Analysis is done by using SPSS software and in order to comparison two groups were used of Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests. Results: The results indicated that cooperative member paddies, in both years compared had more production rather than non-members. Also in the year that the region were caught by water shortage there was significant difference between the damage (rice production yield) of members and non-members paddies. Conclusion: Members of the cooperative were undergoing less damage. In this relationship determined there was significant differences between the production of members and non-member paddies in participation in use of inputs and attend in special education courses (that carried out by cooperatives about the water shortage) in fact, these factors have been effective in yield and reduce damage caused by water shortage. Key words: Production Cooperatives, Yield, Water Shortage, Participation.