Byline: Timothy P. Schofield, Centre for Mental Health, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia (Drs Schofield, Butterworth); Centre for Research in Ageing, Health, and Wellbeing, Research School of Population Health, The Australian National University, Canberra, Acton, Australia (Dr Kiely); Department of Mental Health and Suicide, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway (Dr Mykletun); Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway (Dr Mykletun); Centre for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway (Dr Mykletun); Centre for Work and Mental health, Nordland Hospital Trust, Bodo, Norway (Dr Mykletun); School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (Dr Harvey); Black Dog Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (Dr Harvey); and Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia (Dr Butterworth).; Kim M. Kiely; Arnstein Mykletun; Samuel B. Harvey; Peter Butterworth Abstract OBJECTIVE:: This study examined the association between mental ill-health and subsequent receipt of a disability pension in Australia, and assessed how the strength of the association varied in relation to the duration between mental health measurement and reported disability pension receipt. METHODS:: Eight thousand four hundred seventy-four working-age adults not receiving a disability pension at baseline were followed for up to 11 years; 349 transitioned onto a disability pension. Discrete-time survival analysis considered baseline and time-varying (12-month lagged) measures of mental ill-health. RESULTS:: Proximal measures of mental ill-health were more strongly associated with subsequent pension receipt than baseline measures (odds ratio: 6.6 vs 3.9) and accounted for a significantly greater proportion of pension transitions (35% vs 21%). CONCLUSION:: Mental ill-health is an independent risk factor for disability pension receipt, and proximal circumstances better capture this association than mental health measured earlier.