Background Temporal estimation can be influenced by pain, which is a complex psychological and physiological phenomenon. However, the time range in which perception is most sensitive to pain remains unclear. Methods In the present study, we explored the effects of acute inflammatory pain on time perception in the sub- to supra-second (0.6-2.4-s) and supra-second (2-8-s) ranges in rats. Plantar formalin injection was used to induce acute inflammatory pain, and a temporal bisection task was used to measure time perception. Task test sessions were held for five consecutive days (one per day): the day before injection (baseline), immediately after injection, and the three post-injection days. The point of subjective equality (PSE, which reflects the subjective duration) and Weber fraction (which reflects temporal sensitivity) were calculated and analysed. Results In the 0.6-2.4-s range, the PSE was significantly lower, indicating prolonged subjective duration, in the formalin group relative to the saline group (p = 0.049) immediately after injection. Formalin-induced pain also tended to lengthened time perception in the 0.6-2.4-s range on post-injection days 2 (p = 0.06) and 3 (p = 0.054). In the 2-8-s range, formalin injection did not affect the PSE or Weber fraction. Conclusions The enhanced effect of pain on temporal perception in the sub- to supra-second range is observed in this study and this effect is attenuated with the prolongation of estimated time, even in rats.