Many studies have focused on the relationship between transcription factors and a variety of common pathological conditions, such as diabetes, stroke, and cancer. It has been found that abnormal transcription factor regulation can lead to aberrant expression of downstream genes, which contributes to the occurrence and development of many diseases. The forkhead box (FOX) transcription factor family is encoded by the FOX gene, which mediates gene transcription and follow-up functions during physiological and pathological processes. FOXF2, a member of the FOX transcription family, is expressed in various organs and tissues while maintaining their normal structural and functional development during the embryonic and adult stages. Multiple regulatory pathways that regulate FOXF2 may also be controlled by FOXF2. Abnormal FOXF2 expression induced by uncontrollable regulatory signals mediate the progression of human diseases by interfering with the cell cycle, proliferation, differentiation, invasion, and metastasis. FOXF2 manipulates downstream pathways and targets as both a pro-oncogenic and anti-oncogenic factor across different types of cancer, suggesting it may be a new potential clinical marker or therapeutic target for cancer. However, FOXF2's biological functions and specific roles in cancer development remain unclear. In this study, we provide an overview of FOXF2's structure, function, and regulatory mechanisms in the physiological and pathological conditions of human body. We also discussed the possible reasons why FOXF2 performs the opposite function in the same types of cancer.