Huntsman spider phylogeny informs evolution of life history, egg sacs, and morphology.

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Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Document Type: Report
Length: 440 words

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Keywords Sparassidae; Molecular phylogenetics; Social evolution; Stochastic character mapping; D-test; Deleninae Highlights * Broad molecular phylogeny of sparassids using new species and existing data. * The monophyly of many major huntsman lineages is supported. * Divergence dating with outgroup fossils infer an age of ~ 100 my for sparassids. * Life history strategies are evolutionarily conserved in huntsman spiders. * Life history traits (egg sacs, retreats) are associated with sociality. Abstract Huntsman spiders (Araneae: Sparassidae) are among the most speciose spider families, with a near-worldwide distribution, diverse habitats, equally diverse life histories, and five prolonged subsocial species. Previous molecular phylogenies have focused on individual subfamilies or clades. Here, we provide a phylogenetic inference with broadened sampling from 37 genera and eight of the eleven sparassid subfamilies. We increased taxon sampling by including species not previously sequenced and most available data on GenBank of two mitochondrial (COI, 16S rRNA) and two nuclear (H3, 28S rRNA) genes for a total of 262 ingroup taxa and nine outgroup taxa. Divergence dates were estimated using outgroup fossil taxa suggesting the sparassids evolved ~ 100 mya (stem age), while the clade containing all subfamilies except Sparianthinae evolved ~ 90 mya (stem age). Using a stochastic map approach with 40 species, this is the first sparassid phylogeny to incorporate extensive biology and life history data. Correlations of life history traits with solitary, subsocial, and prolonged subsocial behavior are examined using the D-test. Sparassid sociality is associated with life history traits that allow developing spiders to remain in their natal retreat longer (e.g., larger permanent retreats, plastered egg sacs, and ontogenetically delayed foraging), but is unrelated to body size or lifespan. Detailed morphological scoring of the endemic Australian subfamily Deleninae contextualizes existing molecular data, including in the Isopeda-Holconia-Isopedella complex. This study supports the monophyly of many major lineages, including for the first time, the Sparianthinae, but indicates multiple clades (Sparassinae and Eusparassinae) are paraphyletic and need further revision. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA (b) Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability, California Academy of Sciences, 55 Music Concourse Drive, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA (c) Laboratório de Coleções Zoológicas, Instituto Butantan, Av. Vital Brasil, 1500, 05503-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil (d) Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA * Corresponding author at: Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability, California Academy of Sciences, 55 Music Concourse Drive, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA. Article History: Received 29 July 2021; Revised 17 April 2022; Accepted 6 May 2022 Byline: Jacob A. Gorneau [jag482@cornell.edu] (a,b,*), Cristina A. Rheims [carheims@gmail.com] (c), Corrie S. Moreau [corrie.moreau@cornell.edu] (a,d), Linda S. Rayor [lsr1@cornell.edu] (a)

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A708782305