Assessment of antibacterial effect of hydrogen water on plaque from patients with chronic periodontitis.

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Publisher: Medknow Publications and Media Pvt. Ltd.
Document Type: Article
Length: 2,632 words
Lexile Measure: 1510L

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Byline: Aarati. Nayak, Akanksha. Bhatt, Kishore. Bhat, Ranganath. Nayak, Amruta. Hooli, Sachita. Naik

Background: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease causing destruction of tissues surrounding the teeth. The primary etiological factor for periodontitis is plaque. An inference could be drawn that an overall reduction in microorganisms halts disease progression. It is desirable to have natural agents with minimal side effects to reduce the microbial load. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the effect of hydrogen water on microbial count in plaque obtained from chronic periodontitis patients and to determine the antibacterial activity of hydrogen water at various time intervals. Materials and Methods: A total of twenty chronic periodontitis patients were included after obtaining approval from the institutional ethical committee. Written informed consent was obtained from all the twenty participants. Plaque samples were collected and exposed to hydrogen water at baseline, 1 min, 2 min 30 s, and 5 min. Samples were then cultured on blood agar and incubated in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The colony forming units and total bacterial count were recorded after 24-48 h. Statistical Analysis: Intragroup pair-wise comparison was done using Wilcoxon sign-ranked test. Results: Hydrogen water showed antibacterial activity against aerobic and anaerobic organisms associated with chronic periodontitis. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of colony forming units from baseline to 1 and 2.5 min for the aerobic culture and also for baseline to 1, 2.5, and 5 min for the anaerobic culture. Conclusion: The data of the present study indicate that hydrogen water has an antibacterial effect on microorganisms associated with chronic periodontitis.

Introduction

Dental plaque is a highly complex biofilm comprising various species and strains of microbiota, adhering to tooth surfaces, other oral surfaces, and restorations in the oral cavity. Plaque associated with a tooth surface is characterized by Gram-positive rods and cocci including Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, Actinomyces naselundii, and Eubacterium species . Tissue-associated plaque shows a predominance of Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus intermedius, Peptostreptococcus micros, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythus, and Fusobacterium nucleatum .[1]

Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of teeth initiated by microorganisms, resulting in progressive destruction of the tissues surrounding a tooth, leading to the eventual loss of the tooth. Hence, overall reduction of the bacteria present in the dental plaque may help prevent periodontal disease and limit its progression.[2]

Various agents are used to combat the microbial load in the oral cavity. The use of chemical agents for this purpose is proven to be effective, but the duration of action of these agents is short lived and they cannot be consumed lifelong. Therefore, the use of natural agents, which can be consumed on a daily basis and also have antibacterial effects on oral bacteria, is desirable. One such agent is 'hydrogen water.'

Hydrogen water has shown antibacterial activities on standard strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, F. nucleatum, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, and Treponema denticola .[3] It has also been proven to be an antifungal agent by showing its activity...

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A661265845