Historically, patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been treated with chemotherapy alone, reserving local therapies for symptom palliation. However, evidence has accumulated that a subset of patients with oligometastatic NSCLC (OM-NSCLC) may benefit from local ablative therapies (LATs). In this article, we review the data that have formed the rationale for LAT, specifically radiotherapy, and the prospective trials that support its use in this population. Finally, we examine the evolving role of LAT in patients with OM-NSCLC in the context of immunotherapy and targeted therapies, as well as discuss ongoing clinical trials incorporating LAT in these patients. KEYWORDS: Non--small cell lung cancer, oligometastatic, stereotactic body radiotherapy, local ablative therapy.