BACKGROUND. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key regulators of tissue destruction in tuberculosis (TB) and may be targets for host-directed therapy. We conducted a phase II double-blind, randomized, controlled trial investigating doxycycline, a licensed broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor, in patients with pulmonary TB. METHODS. Thirty patients with pulmonary TB were enrolled within 7 days of initiating anti-TB treatment and randomly assigned to receive either 100 mg doxycycline or placebo twice a day for 14 days, in addition to standard care. RESULTS. Whole blood RNA-sequencing demonstrated that doxycycline accelerated restoration of dysregulated gene expression in TB towards normality, rapidly down-regulating type I and II interferon and innate immune response genes, and up-regulating B-cell modules relative to placebo. The effects persisted for 6 weeks after doxycycline discontinuation, concurrent with suppressed plasma MMP- 1. Doxycycline significantly reduced sputum MMP-1, -8, -9, -12 and -13, suppressed type I collagen and elastin destruction, reduced pulmonary cavity volume without altering sputum mycobacterial loads, and was safe. CONCLUSION. Adjunctive doxycycline with standard anti-TB treatment suppressed pathological MMPs in PTB patients. Larger studies on adjunctive doxycycline to limit TB immunopathology are merited. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02774993. FUNDING. Singapore National Medical Research Council (NMRC/CNIG/1120/2014, NMRC/Seedfunding/0010/2014, NMRC/ CISSP/2015/009a); the Singapore Infectious Diseases Initiative (SIDI/2013/013); National University Health System (PFFR-28 January 14, NUHSRO/2014/039/BSL3- SeedFunding/Jul/01); the Singapore Immunology Network Immunomonitoring platform (BMRC/IAF/311006, H16/99/b0/011, NRF2017_SISFP09); an ExxonMobil Research Fellowship, NUHS Clinician Scientist Program (NMRC/TA/0042/2015, CSAINV17nov014); the UK Medical Research Council (MR/P023754/1, MR/N006631/1); a NUS Postdoctoral Fellowship (NUHSRU/2017/073/PDF/03); The Royal Society Challenge Grant (CHG\R1\170084); the Sir Henry Dale Fellowship, Wellcome Trust (109377/Z/15/Z); and A*STAR.