Mammalian cell proliferation requires noncatalytic functions of O-GlcNAc transferase

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Publisher: National Academy of Sciences
Document Type: Report
Length: 9,782 words
Lexile Measure: 1410L

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Abstract :

O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of all mammalian cell types, is essential for cell proliferation. Why OGT is required for cell growth is not known. OGT performs two enzymatic reactions in the same active site. In one, it glycosylates thousands of different proteins, and in the other, it proteolytically cleaves another essential protein involved in gene expression. Deconvoluting OGT's myriad cellular roles has been challenging because genetic deletion is lethal; complementation methods have not been established. Here, we developed approaches to replace endogenous OGT with separation-of-function variants to investigate the importance of OGT's enzymatic activities for cell viability. Using genetic complementation, we found that OGT's glycosyltransferase function is required for cell growth but its protease function is dispensable. We next used complementation to construct a cell line with degron-tagged wild-type OGT. When OGT was degraded to very low levels, cells stopped proliferating but remained viable. Adding back catalytically inactive OGT rescued growth. Therefore, OGT has an essential noncatalytic role that is necessary for cell proliferation. By developing a method to quantify how OGT's catalytic and noncatalytic activities affect protein abundance, we found that OGT's noncatalytic functions often affect different proteins from its catalytic functions. Proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation and the actin cytoskeleton were especially impacted by the noncatalytic functions. We conclude that OGT integrates both catalytic and noncatalytic functions to control cell physiology. O-GlcNAc transferase | OGT | HCF-1 | enzyme | cell proliferation

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A649927423