Smear Microscopy for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Eastern Sudan

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Publisher: Hindawi Limited
Document Type: Article
Length: 3,928 words
Lexile Measure: 1380L

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Abstract :

Background. In Sudan, tuberculosis diagnosis largely relies on clinical symptoms and smear microscopy as in many other low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the positive predictive value of a positive sputum smear in patients investigated for pulmonary tuberculosis in Eastern Sudan. Methods. Two sputum samples from patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis were investigated using direct Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining and light microscopy between June to October 2014 and January to July 2016. If one of the samples was smear positive, both samples were pooled, stored at -20[degrees]C, and sent to the National Reference Laboratory (NRL), Germany. Following decontamination, samples underwent repeat microscopy and culture. Culture negative/contaminated samples were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results. A total of 383 samples were investigated. Repeat microscopy categorized 123 (32.1%) as negative, among which 31 were culture positive. This increased to 80 when PCR and culture results were considered together. A total of 196 samples were culture positive, of which 171 (87.3%), 14 (7.1%), and 11 (5.6%) were M. tuberculosis, M. intracellulare, and mixed species. Overall, 15.6% (57/365) of the samples had no evidence of M. tuberculosis, resulting in a positive predictive value of 84.4%. Conclusions. There was a discordance between the results of smear microscopy performed at local laboratories in the Sudan and at the NRL, Germany; besides, a considerable number of samples had no evidence of M. tuberculosis. Improved quality control for smear microscopy and more specific diagnostics are crucial to avoid possible overtreatment.

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Source Citation   

Gale Document Number: GALE|A584728139