Byline: Samia Wasif, Maheen Sohail and Maleeha Zaheer
Keywords: Eating behaviours, Satisfaction with food-related life, Satiety responsiveness, Enjoyment of food.
Eating, a requisite for human life, can be defined as an essentially rewarding behaviour which is intrinsically accompanied by mood and emotions.1 A person's social, genetic, physiological and psychological factors interact with one another and influence his/her food preferences, meal timing and quantity of food, and, therefore, they collectively are called eating behaviour.2 Physiological and emotional states of an individual are greatly aected by consuming food,3 therefore the significance of food is inevitable for the sustenance of human life.4
Eating, indeed, is indispensable for survival, but lack or access of it can lead to under-nutrition, over-nutrition and eating disorders.5 Moreover, over-eating often leads to obesity and may create health problems.6,7 Externality theory is one of the prominent theories which focus on the importance of external cues in obese people compared to internal hunger and satiety signals. According to this theory, obese people react more to external cues than internal hunger.8,9 According to psychosomatic theory, excessive stress and low mood can lead to over-eating.8,9
It occurs when people become unable to dierentiate between hunger and adverse emotional conditions. Thus, this inability causes over-eating in many people. It could also be termed emotional eating.8,9
People having food approach traits, such as 'food responsiveness' usually have larger appetite or show greater interest in food.10 Some people possess food avoidance traits, such as 'satiety responsiveness', and, thus, have smaller appetite or lower interest in food.10
Demographic variables, such as age, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES), and other factors, such as delivery and distribution of food to markets, aect the choice and intake of food within a culture.11 Moreover, socio-cultural and ethnic factors also aect choice of food and role of food in people's life.12 Studies13,14 have shown food and diet quality as an important domain of life that is positively linked with overall life satisfaction. Satisfaction with life is defined as an overall assessment of feelings and attitudes about one's life at a particular point in time ranging from negative to positive.15 A person's overall assessment regarding their food and eating habits is termed satisfaction with his food-related life (SWFRL).16 People experience significant change and improvement in their mood after food consumption and intake of calories.17
The current study was planned to explore eating behaviours closely linked to SWFRL.
Subjects and Methods
The correlational study was conducted at the Department of Humanities, COMSATS University, Islamabad, Pakistan, from January to May, 2019, and comprised adult individuals of both genders from dierent universities and food outlets located in Islamabad. After approval from the institutional ethics review board, the sample size was calculated using Raosoft online calculator18 with 95% confidence interval (CI) and 5% margin of error.
The sample was raised using purposive...