Camostat mesilate (CM) possesses potential anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activities. However, it remains unknown whether CM is involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammatory responses and cell injury. In this project, differentially expressed proteins (DEPs, fold change[greater than or equal to] 1.2 or [less than or equal to] 0.83 and Q value [less than or equal to]0.05) in response to LPS stimulation alone or in combination with CM were identified through tandem mass tags (TMT)/mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics analysis in DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblasts. The mRNA expression levels of filtered genes were determined by RT-qPCR assay. The results showed that CM alleviated the detrimental effect of LPS on cell viability and inhibited LPS-induced TNF-[alpha] and IL-6 secretions in DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblasts. A total of 141 DEPs that might be involved in mediating functions of both LPS and CM were identified by proteomics analysis in DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblasts. LPS inhibited milk fat globule EGF and factor V/VIII domain containing (MFGE8) expression and induced high mobility group nucleosome binding domain 1 (HMGN1) expression, while these effects were abrogated by CM in DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblasts. MFGE8 knockdown facilitated TNF-[alpha] and IL-6 secretions , reduced cell viability, stimulated cell apoptosis in DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblasts co-treated with LPS and CM. HMGN1 loss did not influence TNF-[alpha] and IL-6 secretions, cell viability, and cell apoptosis in DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblasts co-treated with LPS and CM. In conclusion, CM exerted anti-inflammatory and pro-survival activities by regulating MFGE8 in LPS-stimulated DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblasts, deepening our understanding of the roles and molecular basis of CM in protecting against Gram-negative bacteria.