Targeting INMT and interrupting its methylation pathway for the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer.

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Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.
Document Type: Article
Length: 6,945 words
Lexile Measure: 1460L

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Abstract :

Background Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is associated with a very poor prognosis, and the treatment of which remains a serious clinical challenge. Methods RNA-seq, qPCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry were employed to identify and confirm the high expression of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT) in CRPC and the clinical relevance. Chip assay was used to identify Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase (SMYD3) as a major epigenetic regulator of INMT. LC-MS/MS were used to identify new substrates of INMT methylation in CRPC tissues. Gene knockdown/overexpression, MTT and mouse cancer models were used to examine the role of INMT as well as the anticancer efficacy of INMT inhibitor N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), the SMYD3 inhibitor BCl-12, the selenium compounds methaneseleninic acid (MSA) and Se-(Methyl)selenocysteine hydrochloride (MSC), and the newly identified endogenous INMT substrate Bis(7)-tacrine. Results We found that the expression of INMT was highly increased in CRPC and was correlated with poor prognosis of clinical prostate cancer (PCa). INMT promoted PCa castration resistance via detoxification of anticancer metabolites. Knockdown of INMT or treatment with INMT inhibitor N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) significantly suppressed CRPC development. Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase SMYD3 was a major epigenetic regulator of INMT expression, treatment with SMYD3 inhibitor BCl-121 suppressed INMT expression and inhibits CRPC development. Importantly, INMT knockdown significantly increased the anticancer effect of the exogenous selenium compounds methaneseleninic acid (MSA) and Se-(Methyl)selenocysteine hydrochloride (MSC) as well as the endogenous metabolite Bis(7)-tacrine. Conclusions Our study suggests that INMT drives PCa castration resistance through detoxification of anticancer metabolites, targeting INMT or its regulator SMYD3 or/and its methylation metabolites represents an effective therapeutic avenue for CRPC treatment. Keywords: INMT, SMYD3, Prostate cancer castration-resistance, DMT, MSA, MSC, Bis(7)-tacrine

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A678007557