Helicobacter pylori as a class I carcinogen is correlated with a variety of severe gastroduodenal diseases; therefore, H. pylori eradication has become a priority to prevent gastric carcinogenesis. However, due to the emergence and spread of multidrug and single drug resistance mechanisms in H. pylori, as well as serious side effects of currently used antibiotic interventions, achieving successful H. pylori eradication has become exceedingly difficult. Recent studies expressed the intention of seeking novel strategies to improve H. pylori management and reduce the risk of H. pylori-associated intestinal and extragastrointestinal disorders. For which, vitamin supplementation has been demonstrated in many studies to have a tight interaction with H. pylori infection, either directly through the regulation of the host inflammatory pathways or indirectly by promoting the host immune response. On the other hand, H. pylori infection is reported to result in micronutrient malabsorption or deficiency. Furthermore, serum levels of particular micronutrients, especially vitamin D, are inversely correlated to the risk of H. pylori infection and eradication failure. Accordingly, vitamin supplementation might increase the efficiency of H. pylori eradication and reduce the risk of drug-related adverse effects. Therefore, this review aims at highlighting the regulatory role of micronutrients in H. pylori-induced host immune response and their potential capacity, as intrinsic antioxidants, for reducing oxidative stress and inflammation. We also discuss the uncovered mechanisms underlying the molecular and serological interactions between micronutrients and H. pylori infection to present a perspective for innovative in vitro investigations, as well as novel clinical implications.