SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Vaccine-Induced Immune Imprinting Reduces Nucleocapsid Protein Antibody Response in SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

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Publisher: Hindawi Limited
Document Type: Article
Length: 2,652 words
Lexile Measure: 1440L

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Abstract :

Immune imprinting or original antigenic sin (OAS) is the process by which the humoral memory response to an antigen can inhibit the response to new epitopes of that antigen originating from a second encounter with the pathogen. Given the situation of the COVID-19 pandemic, multiple vaccines have been developed against SARS-CoV-2 infection. These vaccines are directed to the spike protein (S protein) of the original variant of Wuhan D614G. Vaccine memory immune response against S protein in noninfected subjects could inhibit, through the OAS mechanism, the response to new epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 after infection. The present study analyzes whether the memory antibody B cell response generated by mRNA vaccines against S protein can inhibit the primary antibody immune response to other SARS-CoV-2 antigens, such as nucleocapsid protein (N protein). SARS-CoV-2 primary infection in vaccinated healthcare workers (HCWs) produced significantly lower titers of anti-N antibodies than that in nonvaccinated HCWs: 5.7 (IQR 2.3-15.2) versus 12.2 (IQR 4.2-32.0), respectively (p=0.005). Therefore, spike protein vaccine-induced immune imprinting (original antigenic sin) reduces N protein antibody response.

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A712888014