Influenza infection directly alters innate IL-23 and IL-12p70 and subsequent IL-17A and IFN-[gamma] responses to pneumococcus in vitro in human monocytes

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From: PLoS ONE(Vol. 13, Issue 9)
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Document Type: Report
Length: 8,878 words
Lexile Measure: 1610L

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Abstract :

It is well accepted that influenza A virus predisposes individuals to often more severe superinfections with Streptococcus pneumonia. However, the mechanisms that lead to this synergy are not clearly understood. Recent data suggests that competent Th17 immunity is crucial to clearance and protection from invasive pneumococcal disease of the lung. We demonstrate that early influenza infection significantly reduced levels of pneumococcus driven IL-12p70, IL-23 and IL-27 in human monocytes with significant impairment of IL-17A and IFN-[gamma] in HKSP-treated allogeneic mixed lymphocyte cultures. We also provide evidence to suggest that the hemagglutinin component of the virus is at least partially responsible for this downward pressure on IL-17 responses but surprisingly this suppression occurs despite robust IL-23 levels in hemagglutinin-treated monocyte cultures. This study demonstrates that influenza can directly affect the immunological pathways that promote appropriate responses to Streptococcus pneumonia in human immune cells. Importance Influenza virus is highly contagious and poses substantial public health problems due to its strong association with morbidity and mortality. Approximately 250,000-500,000 deaths are caused by seasonal influenza virus annually, and this figure increases during periods of pandemic infections. Most of these deaths are due to secondary bacterial pneumonia. Influenza-bacterial superinfection can result in hospitalisation and/or death of both patients with pre-existing lung disease or previously healthy individuals. The importance of our research is in determining that influenza and its component haemagglutinin has a direct effect on the classic pneumococcus induced pathways to IL-17A in our human ex vivo model. Our understanding of the mechanism which leaves people exposed to influenza infection during superinfection remain unresolved. This paper demonstrates that early infection of monocytes inhibits an arm of immunity crucial to bacterial clearance. Understanding this mechanism may provide alternative interventions in the case of superinfection with antimicrobial resistant strains of bacteria.

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A557791784