Tree bark scrape fungus: A potential source of laccase for application in bioremediation of non-textile dyes

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From: PLoS ONE(Vol. 15, Issue 6)
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Document Type: Report
Length: 6,828 words
Lexile Measure: 1440L

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Author(s): R. Z. Sayyed 1,*, H. M. Bhamare 2, Sapna 3, Najat Marraiki 4, Abdallah M. Elgorban 4,5, Asad Syed 4, Hesham Ali El-Enshasy 6,7,8, Daniel J. Dailin 6,7

Introduction

Laccase (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2), belonging to a group of enzymes called multicopper blue oxidasehas been noted to exhibit a wide substrate specificity [1]. It has been applied in various sectors, such as biomedical [2], dye degradation [3], paper industries for delignification [4-5], bioremediation [6], in biosensors [7], as melanin degraders in the cosmetic industry [8], as an enzymatic biofuel [9] and used in juice clarification [10]. Furthermore, laccase is a key biological mediator and the best alternative for chemical mediators; thus, it is regarded as a green enzyme in dye degradation, which is a new era for dye degradation [11]. Synthetic dyes are broadly used in a wide range of industries, including textiles, paper, printing, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. During dyeing, 10-15% of the dyes are lost in the effluent. Owing to their structural complexity, most of these dyes resist biodecolorization [12]. Although physic-chemical approaches are available for the removal of these dyes, they have found to be costly and non-eco-friendly [12].

High catalytic efficiency is another key feature of the enzyme that has been utilized in the bioremediation of dye effluent, sulfonamide, and other pollutants. This bioremediation ismediated by thelaccase mediator system (LMS) [13]. Laccase has emerged as a significant enzyme in the mycoremediation of grey-water treatment as it substantially reduces the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD), and solids present in grey-water [14]. The new trend of forward osmosis, aided by laccase, is used in the removal of micro-pollutants from wastewater and increase the potability of water [15]. Laccase is also used in the biodegradation of organics, as it is a critical factor in reducing water pollution with its excellent catalytic performance and reusability [16,17].

Laccase has a self as well as a cross-coupling mechanism for catalyzing single-electron oxidation, playing an important role in removing non-degradable organic pollutants [18]. It is now used as an effective and best alternative for chemical bleaching agents, which are used for paper bleaching in the paper industry [19]. Nonetheless, high production cost and low efficiency of laccase has restricted its wider application and has increased the need to develop an economically feasible process [20]. The production yield of an enzyme depends on the type of producing strain, as most natural strains are known to be poor laccase producers. However, screening and selecting potent laccase producing fungi and optimizingthe production conditions continue to remain crucial and vital approachesto achieving high and cost-effective yields of laccase. Furthermore, improvement in laccase production by optimizing medium composition and cultivation parameters has been reported [21].

Materials and methods

Chemicals

All the chemicals used in this study were purchased from Hi-media laboratories, India;and Remazol Brilliant Blue R and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) were procured from Sigma Aldrich, USA.

Source of culture

Aspergillus sp. HB_RZ4 used in this study was obtained from the Department of Biotechnology,...

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A625751187