Global leishmaniasis surveillance: 2019-2020, a baseline for the 2030 roadmap/Surveillance mondiale de la leishmaniose: 2019-2020, une periode de reference pour la feuille de route a l'horizon 2030.

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From: Weekly Epidemiological Record(Vol. 96, Issue 35)
Publisher: World Health Organization
Document Type: Article
Length: 12,166 words
Lexile Measure: 1730L

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Leishmaniasis continues to be a major health problem in 4 eco-epidemiological regions of the world: the Americas, East Africa, North Africa and West and SouthEast Asia.

There are 4 main forms of the disease: visceral leishmaniasis (VL, also known as kala-azar), post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. While CL is the most common form of the disease, VL is the most serious and is almost always fatal if untreated. (1)

This update follows those of data up to 20 162 and 2018. (3) Six indicators of leishmaniasis are publicly available through the Global Health Observatory (GHO). (4) In addition to the GHO, country profiles with a total of 30 indicators are published, with detailed data received from 43 Member States. (5)

The aims of this report are to update the description of the GHO leishmaniasis indicators reported by Member States to WHO up to 2020, to describe specific indicators of gender and age distribution, relapses, treatment, selected outbreaks, VL case fatality rates, rates of co-infection with HIV for VL and to describe the PKDL burden. This report also contains a brief section on the Kala-azar Elimination Programme in South-East Asia.

Neglected tropical diseases road map 2021-2030

This report is published in the same year as the new neglected tropical diseases (NTD) road map 2021-2030. (6) The new road map includes targets for CL, on the number of cases diagnosed, reported and treated, and for VL, on case fatality rate, PKDL and elimination in South-East Asia. Moreover, the road map emphasizes the importance of cross-cutting indicators, such as mortality due to vector-borne diseases and integration of control of skin NTDs.

Endemicity at country level

According to WHO, scientific publications and the WHO Expert Committee, countries are classified as: (i) "endemic" if at least 1 autochthonous case has been reported and the entire cycle of transmission has been demonstrated somewhere in that country; (ii) having "previously reported cases" if at least 1 autochthonous case has been reported, but the entire cycle of transmission has not been demonstrated in that country; or (iii) having "no autochthonous cases reported" if no case has been reported in the country.

In 2020, of the 200 countries and territories that reported to WHO, 98 (49%) were considered endemic and 6 of having previously reported cases of leishmaniasis. Of those 200, 89 (45%) were considered endemic for CL, 3 (2%) had previously reported CL cases, 79 (40%) were considered endemic for VL, and 5 (3%) had previously reported VL cases. According to the WHO classification, 71 of the 200 (36%) were endemic for both CL and VL. CL was endemic in 82% (18/22) of countries and territories in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), 58% (21/36) in the Region of the Americas (AMR), 47% (25/53) in the European Region (EUR), 45% (5/11)in the South-East Asia Region (SEAR) and 40% (19/47) in the African Region (AFR). For VL, the proportions were 82% (18/22) in EMR, 55% (6/11) in SEAR, 51% (27/53) in EUR, 36% (13/36)...

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A675268244