Subdaily meteorological measurements of temperature, direction of the movement of the clouds, and cloud cover in the Late Maunder Minimum by Louis Morin in Paris.

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Date: July 21, 2022
From: Climate of the Past(Vol. 18, Issue 7)
Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
Document Type: Brief article
Length: 379 words

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Abstract :

We have digitized three meteorological variables (temperature, direction of the movement of the clouds, and cloud cover) from copies of Louis Morin's original measurements (source: Institute of History/Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern; Institut de France) and subjected them to quality analysis to make these data available to the scientific community. Our available data cover the period 1665-1713 (temperature beginning in 1676). We compare the early instrumental temperature dataset with statistical methods and proxy data to validate the measurements in terms of inhomogeneities and claim that they are, apart from small inhomogeneities, reliable. The Late Maunder Minimum (LMM) is characterized by cold winters and falls and moderate springs and summers with respect to the reference period of 1961-1990. Winter months show a significantly lower frequency of the westerly direction in the movement of the clouds. This reduction of advection from the ocean leads to a cooling in Paris in winter. The influence of the advection becomes apparent when comparing the last decade of the 17th century (cold) and the first decade of the 18th century (warm). Consequently, the unusually cold winters in the LMM are largely caused by a lower frequency of the westerly direction in the movement of the clouds. An impact analysis reveals that the winter of 1708/09 was a devastating one with respect to consecutive ice days, although other winters are more pronounced (e.g., the winters of 1676/77, 1678/79, 1683/84, 1692/93, 1694/95, and 1696/97) in terms of mean temperature, ice days, cold days, or consecutive cold days. An investigation of the cloud cover data revealed a high discrepancy, with the winter season (DJF, -14.0 %), the spring season (MAM, -20.8 %), the summer season (JJA, -17.9 %), and the fall season (SON, -18.0 %) showing negative anomalies of total cloud cover (TCC) with respect to the 30-year mean of the ERA5 data (1981-2010). Thus, Morin's measurements of temperature and direction of the movement of the clouds seem to be trustworthy, whereas cloud cover in quantitative terms should be taken with caution.

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A711038938